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Full text of "Air quality report"

H Ass. BA 2.7.3; O^ooo 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 



UMASS/AMHERST 





312066 0362 9032 5 



2000 Air Quality 
Report 



%, 



% 







Executive Office of Environmental Affairs 

Department of Environmental Protection 

Bureau of Waste Prevention 

Division of Planning and Evaluation 




Air Assessment Branch 

Wall Experiment Station 

37 Shattuck Street 

Lawrence, MA 01843 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The data in this report represents the work of the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection 
(MADEP) Air Assessment Branch (AAB) to collect representative, complete, and accurate air quality 
data throughout the Commonwealth. This report includes results from the calendar year 2000. 

The following MADEP AAB staff are acknowledged for their efforts to operate and maintain air 
monitoring equipment and stations: Damon Chaplin, Diana Conti, Mark Ducomb, Kevin Dufour, 
Charlene Flynn, Dennis Flynn, Jose Kemperman, Mark Lally, Jack McPartlen, Iva Nesin, Jenmina Ojuka, 
John Paino, Tony Pikul, Robert Quevillon, Peter Russell, Lisa Shore, Yan Song, Sharri Tyas, Kathy 
Vertefeuille, and Bradley Webber. 

The following MADEP and Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) staff contributed to the 
publication of this report: Leslie Collyer, Steve Dennis, Richard Driscoll, Jen D'Urso, Ross Edward, 
Richard Fields, Sonia Hamel, John Lane, Thomas McGrath, Ken Santlal, Nancy Seidman, Jerry Sheehan, 
Ann Sorensen, and Sharon Weber. 

The photograph on the cover is the air monitoring site for acid deposition in Waltham. 

This document is available in Adobe Acrobat PDF format from the MADEP web site. The address is 
mass.gov/dep/bwp/daqc. 



Inquiries may be directed to: 

Thomas McGrath 

Air Assessment Branch 

Wall Experiment Station 

Lawrence, MA 1 843- 1 343 

(978)975-1138 

email: Thomas. McGrath(S)state. ma. us 



Table of Contents 



TABLE OF CONTENTS ■. i 

LIST OF FIGURES iii 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS v 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 

SECTION I - AMBIENT AIR MONITORING PROGRAM 

Program Overview 9 

MADEP Western Region Map 12 

MADEP Central Region Map 13 

MADEP Northeast Region Map 14 

MADEP Southeast Region Map 15 

National Ambient Air Quality Standards 16 

Pollutant Health Effects and Sources 17 

Public and Industrial Network Descriptions 19 

Public Site Directory 21 

Industrial Site Directory 24 

Air Quality Related Web Sites 25 

SECTION II - ATTAINMENT AND EXCEEDANCES OF AIR QUALITY STANDARDS 

Attainment Status Summary 28 

Ozone Exceedances 30 

A Look at the 2000 Ozone (03) Season 35 

Daily Ozone (03) Forecast 36 

State Implementation Plan (SIP) 38 

SECTION III - MASSACHUSETTS AIR QUALITY DATA SUMMARIES 

Ozone (03) Summary 40 

Sulfur Dioxide (S02) Summary ; 46 

Nitrogen Dioxide (N02) Summary.. 50 

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Summary 54 

Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM10) Summary 58 

Particulate Matter 2.5-Microns (PM2.5) Summary 62 

Lead (Pb) Summary 65 

Acid Deposition ; 67 

Industrial Network Summary 69 

Quality Control and Quality Assurance 72 

Air Quality Levels By Region 77 

SECTION IV - PAMS/AIR TOXICS MONITORING 

PAMS Monitoring 80 

Air Toxics Monitoring 86 

Continued on next page 



Table of Contents, continued 



SECTION V - EMISSIONS INVENTORY 

Emissions Inventories: 1990-1996 89 

APPENDIX A- Public Site Location Coordinates 94 

APPENDIX B- Industrial Site Location Coordinates 97 



M 



List of Figures 



Executive Summary 

Figure 1 8-hour Ozone Exceedance Days and Total Exceedances 1 987-2000 2 

Figure 2 1 -hour Ozone Exceedance Days and Total Exceedances 1987-2000 3 

Figure 3 Carbon Monoxide Concentrations 1985-2000 3 

Figure 4 Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations 1985-2000 4 

Figure 5 Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations 1986-2000 4 

Figure 6 Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM 10) Concentrations 1989-2000 5 

Figure 7 Lead Concentrations 1986-2000 5 

Figure 8 Benzene Concentrations 1994-2000 6 

Figure 9 VOC and Carbon Monoxide Point Source Emissions 1990-1996 6 

Figure 10 Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides Point Source Emissions 1990-1996 7 

Figure 1 1 On-Road Mobile Emissions and Daily Vehicle Miles Traveled 7 

Section II - Attainment and Exceedances of Air Quality Standards 

Figure 12 1 -hour Ozone Exceedance Days and Total Exceedances 1987-2000 32 

Figure 13 8-hour Ozone Exceedance Days and Total Exceedances 1987-2000 32 

Figure 1 4 3-year Average of Expected Annual 1 -hour Ozone Exceedance Days 1 998-2000 33 

Figure 15 Number of 1-hour Ozone Violation Sites 1987-2000 33 

Figure 16 3-year Average of 8-hour 4th-Highest Ozone Values 1997-2000 34 

Figure 17 Number of 8-hour Ozone Violation Sites 1987-2000 34 

Section III - Massachusetts Air Quality Data Summaries 

Figure 18 Ozone Maximum Daily 1-hour Values 42 

Figure 19 Ozone 2nd Maximum Daily 1-hour Values 42 

Figure 20 Ozone Maximum Daily 8-hour Values 43 

Figure 21 Ozone 4th-Maximum Daily 8-hour Values 43 

Figure 22 Ozone 1-hour Exceedance Day Trends 44 

Figure 23 Ozone 8-hour Exceedance Day Trends 45 

Figure 24 Sulfur Dioxide 2nd Maximum 24-hour Values 48 

Figure 25 Sulfur Dioxide 2nd Maximum 3-hour Values 48 

Figure 26 Sulfur Dioxide Annual Arithmetic Means 48 

Figure 27 Sulfur Dioxide Trends 1985-2000 49 

Figure 28 Nitrogen Dioxide Maximum 1-hour Values 52 

Figure 29 Nitrogen Dioxide Annual Arithmetic Means 52 

Figure 30 Nitrogen Dioxide Trends 1985-2000 53 

Figure 31 Carbon Monoxide 2nd Maximum 1-hour Values 56 

Figure 32 Carbon Monoxide 2nd Maximum 8-hour Values 56 

Figure 33 Carbon Monoxide Trends 1985-2000 57 

Figure 34 Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM10) 2nd Maximum 24-hour Values 60 

Figure 35 Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM10) Annual Arithmetic Means 60 

Figure 36 Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM 10) Trends 1989-2000 61 

Continued on next page 



in 



List of Figures, continued 



Section III - Massachusetts Air Quality Data Summaries (continued) 

Figure 37 Precipitation pH Trend 1985-2000 68 

Figure 38 Nitrate and Sulfate Trends 1985-2000 68 

Figure 39 2000 Precision Summary 74 

Figure 40 2000 Carbon Monoxide Accuracy Summary 74 

Figure 41 2000 Nitrogen Dioxide Accuracy Summary 75 

Figure 42 2000 Ozone Accuracy Summary 75 

Figure 43 2000 Sulfur Dioxide Accuracy Summary 76 

Figure 44 2000 PM10, PM2.5 and Lead Accuracy Summary 76 

Figure 45 Northeast Region Pollutant Levels 78 

Figure 46 Southeast Region Pollutant Levels 78 

Figure 47 Central Region Pollutant Levels 79 

Figure 48 West Region Pollutant Levels 79 

Section IV - PAMS/Air Toxics Monitoring 

Figure 49 Chicopee VOC, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide on a High Ozone Day 83 

Figure 50 Ware VOC, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide on a High Ozone Day 84 

Figure 5 1 Agawam VOC, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide on a High Ozone Day 85 

Figure 52 Lynn Toxics VOC Summary 1994-2000 87 

Section V - PAMS/Air Toxics Monitoring 

Figure 53 Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides Point Source Emissions 1990-1996 90 

Figure 54 VOC and Carbon Monoxide Point Source Emissions 1990-1996 90 

Figure 55 Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides Electric Utility Emissions 1990-1996 90 

Figure 56 Composite VOC Emissions 1990-1996 91 

Figure 57 Composite Nitrogen Oxides Emissions 1990-1996 92 

Figure 58 Composite Carbon Monoxide Emissions 1990-1996 92 

Figure 59 On-Road Mobile Emissions and Daily Vehicle Miles Traveled 93 



IV 



List of Abbreviations and Terms 



AAB Air Assessment Branch 

AIRS Aerometric Information Retrieval System 

AQI Air Quality Index 

BP Barometric Pressure 

CAA Clean Air Act 

CFR Code of Federal Regulations 

CO Carbon Monoxide 

C0 2 Carbon Dioxide 

DVMT Daily Vehicle Miles Traveled 

EOEA Executive Office of Environmental Affairs 

MADEP Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection 

mg/m 3 milligrams per cubic meter 

micron one-one millionth of an inch 

NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard 

NADP National Atmospheric Deposition Program 

NAMS National Air Monitoring Stations 

NESCAUM ....Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management 

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

NO Nitrogen Oxide 

NO x Nitrogen Oxides 

NO y Total Reactive Oxidized Nitrogen 

N0 2 Nitrogen Dioxide 

N0 3 Nitrate 

3 Ozone 

PAMS Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations 

Pb Lead 

PEI Periodic Emissions Inventory 

pH Concentration of hydrogen cations (H + ) in solution. An indicator of acidity. 

ppb parts per billion by volume 

ppm parts per million by volume 

PM 2 5 Particulate matter 2.5 microns 

PM10 Particulate matter 10 microns 

PSI Pollutant Standards Index 

QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control 

RH Relative Humidity 

SIP State Implementation Plan 

SLAMS State and Local Air Monitoring Stations 

S0 2 Sulfur Dioxide 

S0 4 Sulfate 

SUN Solar Radiation 

TSP Total Suspended Particulates 



ug/m 3 micrograms per cubic meter 

USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency 

VOC Volatile Organic Compounds 

WS/WD .'.Wind Speed/Wind Direction 



VI 



Executive Summary 



Introduction 



The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP) monitors the 
outdoor air quality and requires emissions controls, as necessary, for pollutants that 
adversely affect the public health and welfare. This report summarizes the results of 
this monitoring effort in 2000 and identifies long-term trends of air quality and 
emissions data. 



Criteria 

pollutant 

monitoring 



During 2000, MADEP analyzed the ambient air for ozone (0 3 ), sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ), 
nitrogen dioxide (N0 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter 10 microns and 
smaller (PM ]0 ), particulate matter 2.5 microns and smaller (PM 2 5 ) and lead (Pb). 
These are criteria pollutants, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
(USEPA) requires states to monitor. 



Enhanced 

ozone 

monitoring 



Enhanced ozone monitoring continued during 2000 and included the measurement of 
volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are contributors to the formation of 
ozone. This is also called the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station 
program (PAMS). PAMS monitoring can also yield information regarding 
concentrations of pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious 
health effects, such as birth defects. 



PM 25 and 
Speciation 



During 2000, monitoring for PM 25 occurred at 21 sites located in 16 cities 
throughout Massachusetts. PM 2 5 comprises very fine particulates (2.5 microns and 
smaller). Several thousand PM 2 .5 particles could fit on the period at the end of this 
sentence. USEPA added PM 2 5 as a particulate standard, in addition to the PM10 
standard, following studies that indicate smaller particles are largely responsible for 
adverse health effects. 

MADEP has begun to expand its measurement of PM 25 related particles to include 
continuous PM, black carbon and PM 2 5 speciation. Speciation, which uses chemical 
analysis to identify specific components of particulate matter, provides data for 
source characterization and health effects studies. 



How are the 
data used? 



The outdoor monitoring data are used to: 

• determine whether Massachusetts is meeting public health standards for air; 

• report the state of air quality in the Commonwealth; and 

• assess impacts of air pollution control strategies in reducing risks to public health 
and the environment. 



Factors 
affecting air 
quality trends 



Air quality is influenced by many factors. Over the past 25 years, Massachusetts and 
neighboring states have initiated many control measures to reduce the level of man- 
made pollutants emitted into the air. These measures include factory emission 
regulations, new automotive and fuel standards, and incentives to reduce pollution 
such as car pool lanes. These have resulted in significant air quality improvements. 



Continued on next page 



Executive Summary, continued 



Factors 
affecting air 
quality trends 

Continued 



Peak 3 levels in Massachusetts, for example, have dropped significantly since the 
1980s, with peak values today measuring some 30% lower than those in the 1980s. 
Despite this improvement, 3 levels averaged over 8 hours remain high. Also, 
because of meteorological fluctuations, there exist striking year-to-year variations in 
the frequency of elevated 3 and, thus, the population's exposure to 3 . 

While the state of the economy, as reflected by industrial and commercial activity 
and the resultant levels of emissions, contributes to these fluctuations, the role of 
meteorology is significant. On a given day, meteorology governs how much ozone- 
related pollution enters the state from other areas, and whether sunshine is present to 
drive the chemical reactions that produce 3 . Over a season, the frequency of ozone- 
favorable weather, and thus the severity of the 3 season, is related to the position 
and strength of the upper air jet stream. Therefore, as jet stream behavior changes 
year-to-year, so does 3 season severity. 



Ozone 

exceedance 

trends 



There are two air quality standards in 2000 for Ozone (O3): one for values averaged 
over a 1 -hour period and a newer, more stringent standard averaged over an 8-hour 
period. The 8-hour standard was instituted in 1997 in response to studies that 
indicate that longer-term exposures to lower 3 levels cause adverse health effects. 

On five days during 2000, unhealthy (exceedance) 8-hour 3 levels were found 
somewhere in the state, many fewer than 1999's total of 22 exceedance days. There 
were a total of 15 exceedances of the 8-hour standard in 2000 (85 in 1999) which 
took place during those five days. During 2000, for the 1-hour standard, there was 
one exceedance day and a total of one exceedance. 

Trends of 1-hr and 8-hr 3 exceedances are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. 
The trend for 1-hour exceedances shows great reduction in the number of 
occurrences. The trend for the 8-hour exceedances has some peaks with a gradual 
decrease in the number of events. 



8-hr Q3 Exceedance Days & Total Exceedances 1987-2000 Ozone 
exceeded the 8-hour standard (0.085 ppm) 

# Exceedances 

# Exceedance Days 
85, 

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 

Year 




Figure 1 



Continued on next page 



Executive Summary, Continued 



'Ozone 

iexceedance 

jtrends 

'Continued 



The long-term 3 exceedance trends show that, under the more stringent 8-hour 
standard, there are more exceedances compared to the 1-hour federal standard. 



1-hr Q3 Exceedance Days & Total Exceedances 1987-2000 
Ozone exceeded the 1-hour standard (0. 125 ppm) 




♦ — # Exceedances 
# Exceedance Days 



3 
2 



5 

4 



Figure 2 



1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 

Year 



Carbon 
monoxide trend 



The carbon monoxide (CO) 8-hour values show a long-term trend downward for the 
period. CO, as indicated below by the 8-hour 2nd-maximum concentration, has 
decreased by 54% over the period. Massachusetts is well below the federal standard. 



CO Concentrations 1985-2000 

8-hr 2nd Maximum Value 

Standard = 9 ppm 




Figure 3 



Continued on next page 



Executive Summary, continued 



N02 Concentrations 1986-2000 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 

N02 standard = .053 ppm 





.055 




.050 




§ .045 




S .040 




8 .035 




5 .030 




.025 




.020 




.015 




Year 


Nitrogen 




dioxide trend 


The nitrog( 




Figure 



86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 

The nitrogen dioxide (N0 2 ) long-term trend, shown above, has been stable the last 
few years. However, over the 1 5 year period, the annual arithmetic mean 
concentration has decreased by 30%. Massachusetts is well below the federal 
standard. 



Sulfur dioxide 
trend 



The sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ) long-term trend, shown below, has been stable the last few 
years. Over the period, the annual arithmetic mean concentration has decreased by 
55%. Massachusetts is below the federal standard. 



SQ2 Concentrations 1986 - 2000 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 

Standard = 0.03 ppm 



.020 




Figure 5 



.000 



86 87 88 89 



90 



91 92 



93 
Year 



94 95 96 97 98 99 



00 



Continued on next page 



Executive Summary, Continued 



Particulate 
matter (PMjo) 
trend 



The long-term trend of particulate matter levels 10 microns and smaller (PMio) has 
been stable the last few years. For the period, the annual arithmetic mean 
concentration has decreased by 14%. Massachusetts is below the federal standard. 

Monitoring for particulate matter 2.5 microns and smaller (PM2.5) began in 1999, so 
there is insufficient data for trend analysis or compliance determination. Designation 
for the PM 2 5 standard requires three years of data. 



PM10 Concentrations 1989-2000 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 

Standard = 50 ug/m3 




Figure 6 



Lead trend 



In 1998, the USEPA required that lead (Pb) monitoring be reinstituted at one site in 
Boston. This monitoring had been discontinued in June 1995. As Figure 7 indicates, 
the concentration of Pb in the air decreased substantially since the 1980s. This result 
is attributed to the use of unleaded gasoline in motor vehicles, which are the primary 
source of airborne lead emissions. Massachusetts is well below the federal standard. 



.050 
.000 



Pb Concentrations 1985-2000 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 

Standard = 1 . 5ug/m3 




Figure 7 



85 86 87 88 89 90 91 



92 93 94 95 
Year 



96 97 98 99 



00 



Continued on next page 



Executive Summary, Continued 



PAMS 
monitoring 



PAMS monitoring for VOCs has been conducted for six years. Analyses of the 
concentration levels indicate a decline in certain toxic VOCs. There have been 
substantial decreases in benzene. The decrease is probably the result of the use of 
reformulated gas beginning in 1995, which has reduced the emissions of these toxic 
pollutants significantly. Benzene has known human health effects and has been 
assigned a very low AAL. Benzene is ubiquitous in the ambient air along with other 
volatile petroleum hydrocarbons. The trend for benzene for the Lynn and Chicopee 
sites is shown in Figure 8. 



0.00 



Benzene Concentrations 1994-2000 

Annual Arithmetic Mean of 24-hour Values 

* Allowable Ambient Limit (AAL) = 0.04 ppb 




1994 



Lynn 



Chicopee 



■a 



■s- 



— a- 



— * 



1995 



1996 



1997 



1998 



1999 



2000 



Figure 8 



Point source 
emission trends 



*Allowable Ambient Limits (AALs) are health-based air toxics guidelines developed by 
MADEP based on potential known or suspected carcinogenic and toxic health properties of 
individual compounds. Safety factors are incorporated into the AALs to account for 
exposures from pathways other than air. AALs are reviewed and updated periodically to 
reflect current toxicity information. 

Point sources are large manufacturing facilities and power plants. Emissions 
inventories must be reported to the USEPA as part of the State Implementation Plan 
(SIP) because, in 2000, Massachusetts was non-attainment for the 3 and CO 
national air quality standards. The O3 SIP describes the estimated emissions and 
control measures for O3 precursors including VOCs and nitrogen oxides. The 1990 
SIP included a base year emissions inventory for VOCs, NO x , and CO, from which 
air pollution programs were developed. 

Figure 9 indicates substantial decreases in VOCs during the period 1990-1999 and an 
increase in CO point source emissions. 

VOC and CO Point Source Emissions 1990-1999 



20000 



« 15000 

> 

* 10000 
Q. 

(A 

C 

o 



5000 




1990 



1991 1992 1993 1994 

— ♦— VOC POINT 



1995 1996 

-m— CO POINT 



1997 



1998 



.1999 



Figure 9 



Continued on next page 



Executive Summary, Continued 



Point source S0 2 emissions are tracked annually by MADEP as required by the 1985 State Acid 

emission trends Rain (STAR) program. The STAR program was implemented to control emissions 
Continued that cause acid deposition, which is harmful to the environment. NO x emissions 

contribute to both acid rain and ozone formation. 

Figure 10 shows there have been substantial decreases in S0 2 and NO x emissions 
from point sources during the period 1990-1999. Year-to-year changes in emissions 
reflect the adoption of new controls as well as weather and economic conditions. 

Emissions of S02 and NOx from Point Sources 1990-1999 



300000 
ra 250000 
" 200000 



1990 



S02: -47% 
NOx: -48% 




1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



1998 



1999 



-A— S02 POINT 



■*- NOx POINT 



On-road mobile 
source emission 
trends 



Figure 10 

On-road mobile sources include vehicles such as autos, trucks, motorcycles, and buses. 
Figure 1 1 shows the 1990-1999 trends for on-road mobile VOC, NO x , and CO emissions, 
together with daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT). 

The VOC on-road mobile emissions decreased by 34% despite an increase of 15% in 
DVMT. This is a reflection of the effective on-road mobile source control programs that 
were instituted during this period, such as controls on car tailpipe emissions, use of 
reformulated gasoline, and fuel controls such as Stage II vapor recovery systems at 
gasoline stations. 

NO x on-road mobile emissions increased by 8% during the 1990-1999 period. NO x 
controls for new vehicles were put in place more recently, and their effect will be 
reflected as the vehicle fleet turns over. 

CO is by far the major pollutant from on-road mobile sources. The CO emissions 
reflected in Figure 1 1 are one-third of the actual value in order to make the other 
pollutant values visible on the graph. 



Continued on next page 






Executive Summary, continued 



On-Road Mobile Emissions & Daily Vehicle 
MilesTraveled 1990-1999 



2r Summer Day and Million DVI 

oooooooo 
oooooooo 
















I 






















■ 








i 


















Hi 










Q- 100 

£ n 


■— 








■ 


















o u 

I- 




1990 
DC MOBIL 




1993 
3 NOx MOBILE 




1996 1999 


|V 


.El 


:l 


CO MOBILE/3 — ■ — DVMT 



Figure 11 



VOC Mobile -34%, NOx Mobile +8%, 
CO Mobile -43%, VMT +15% 

Note: CO mobile emissions divided by 3 for scaling purposes. 

The emission trends presented in Figures 9, 10, and 1 1 are based on the 1999 Periodic 
Emissions Inventory (PEI). The PEI is done every 3 years. 



The continuing 
need for 
emission 
controls 



While current data trends are downward for many pollutants, existing emission control programs 
need to be maintained and improved to sustain the improvements to date and offset expected from 
increased economic activity and population. 



Developments 
related to 8- 
hour ozone 
standards 



In 1997, the USEPA adopted a new 8-hr ozone standard, which became the subject of 
litigation. As part of the designation process for the new standard, then-Governor Cellucci 
submitted a letter to the USEPA in July 2000. Based on 8-hr ozone data for the three-year 
period 1997-1999, he recommended that Eastern and Western Massachusetts be designated 
"non-attainment" under the new standard. 



Litigation related to the new standards continues and the USEPA has not made formal 
designations of attainment areas. In February 2001, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the new 
standards but remanded the case back to the D.C. Circuit Court for reconsideration of a number 
of legal issues. There is no timetable for implementation of the new standards in light on the 
ongoing legal action. 






Section I 
Ambient Air Monitoring Program 



Program Overview 



Introduction 



Regulations set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 40, Part 58) require 
each state to establish an air monitoring network. A network of National Air 
Monitoring Stations (NAMS) located in urban areas and based on population 
provides a consistent nationwide database. The State and Local Air Monitoring 
Stations (SLAMS) network includes NAMS plus additional sites. This provides a 
comprehensive assessment of air quality. 

The Air Assessment Branch (AAB) of the Department of Environmental Protection 
(MADEP) collects ambient air quality data from sites throughout Massachusetts. 
During 2000, AAB operated a monitoring network of 40 stations publicly funded 
located in 25 cities and towns. AAB also oversaw a separate industrial network of 
six stations located at industries in 3 municipalities. 

MADEP submits ambient air quality data to the Aerometric Information Retrieval 
System (AIRS), a computer-based repository of national air quality information 
administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 



Why is air 
quality data 
collected? 



The ambient air quality data is used for the following purposes: 

• to verify compliance with national ambient air quality standards; 

• to support development of policies and regulations designed to reduce ambient air pollution; 

• to assess the effectiveness of existing air pollution control strategies; 

• to provide aerometric data for long-term trend analysis and special research; and 

• to fulfill USEPA reporting requirements for ambient air quality data. 



What is 
monitored? 



The parameters monitored by the Air Assessment Branch fall into the following categories: 

• Criteria pollutants are subject to National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The 
seven criteria pollutants are: 

• sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ) 

• ozone (0 3 ) 

• carbon monoxide (CO) 

• nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 

• lead (Pb) 

• particulate matter 10 microns (PM10) 

• particulate matter 2.5 microns (PM 2 5) 



Continued on next page 



Program Overview, continued 



What is 
monitored? 

Continued 



Non-criteria pollutants have no established national standards. These pollutants are: 

• nitrogen oxide (NO) 

• total nitrogen oxides (NO x ) 

• total reactive oxidized nitrogen (NO y ) 

• total suspended particulates (TSP) 

• volatile organic compounds (VOC) - ozone precursors and reaction product chemicals 
measured as part of the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) program 

• black carbon 

Meteorological parameters monitored are: 

• wind speed/wind direction (WS/WD) 

• relative humidity (RH) 

• temperature (TEMP) 

• barometric pressure (BP) 

• solar radiation 

• Upper air wind and Temperature 



Monitoring 

station 

locations 



The monitoring locations for the different pollutants are sited to provide data for various 
purposes. Some sites are located in "hot spots" where maximum concentrations are expected, 
while others provide data which is representative of larger land areas. The topography and the 
location of pollutant sources are factors that determine the scale of representation for a 
particular monitor location. 

Each pollutant has a network of monitors located throughout the state. These networks are 
designed to reflect pollutant concentrations accurately for all of Massachusetts. Section III 
contains data summaries for each pollutant and maps showing the monitor locations for each 
network. Also, the site directory in this section lists the different monitors located at each site. 
The map below shows Massachusetts cities and towns that had monitors during 2000. 

Haverhil],^-^ Newbury 
Lawrence 
owell 

Lynn<fc-^ 




Continued on next page 



10 



Program Overview, Continued 



For further 
information 



For further information pertaining to this report, contact the Air Assessment Branch. 
For information about other air quality matters, please contact MADEP's Division of 
Planning and Evaluation in Boston, or a MADEP regional office. The addresses are 
listed below. Maps showing the cities and towns covered by each regional office are 
on the following pages. 



MADEP - WERO (WESTERN) 

436 Dwight Street 
Springfield, MA 01103 
(413)784-1100 

Michael Gorski: Regional Director 



MADEP - CERO (CENTRAL) 

627 Main Street 
Worcester, MA 01608 
(508) 792-7650 

Robert W. Golledge Jr.: Regional Director 



MADEP - NERO (NORTH EAST/MET- 
BOSTON) 

205A Lowell Street 
Wilmington, MA 01887 
(978)661-7600 

William Gaughan: Regional Director 



MADEP - SERO (SOUTHEAST) 

20 Riverside Drive 
Lakeville,MA 02347 
(508) 946-2700 

Paul Taurasi: Regional Director 



BUREAU OF WASTE PREVENTION 

Division of Planning and Evaluation 

One Winter Street 
Boston, MA 02108 
(617)292-5500 

James C. Colman: Assistant Commissioner 



AIR ASSESSMENT BRANCH 

William X. Wall Experiment Station 
Lawrence, MA 01843 
(978)975-1138 



Jerry Sheehan: Branch Chief 



Information about MADEP's various programs and this report are available on the 
internet from MADEP's web site ( mass.gov/dep/) . The USEPA maintains a web site 
( www.epa.gov/air/data/ ), which has air quality information from all the states. 



11 



MADEP's Western Region Map 



DEP's Western Region and neighboring communities 

h « *»r»o 



iSEE^i 



DEP -WERO (WESTERN) 
436DwightSt. 
Springfield, MA 01103 

(413)784-4100 



Michael Gorski: Regional Director ^<pr 



DATA SOURCES: 

Community Bounding of MassaclniselLs 
and !icij;htx)nnj; stales -KOKA/MassGIS 




» • e » t c t a ■ 




Swsshi 




/dep/projcca/daqelfnummaps/at -regions M 



12 






MADEP's Central Region Map 



DEP's Central Region and neighboring communities 



<s 



DEP -CERO (CENTRAL) 
627 Main St. 
Worcester, MA 01608 
(508)792-7650 

Robert Golledge: Regional Director 



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DATA SOURCES: 

Community Boundaries of Massachusetts 

and neighboring states -EOEA/MassGIS 



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DEP's Northeast Region and neighboring communities 



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205A Lowell St. 
Wilmington, MA 01887 
(978)661-7600 

William Gaughan: Regional Director 



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DATA SOURCES: 

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14 



MADEP's Southeast Region Map 




DEP -SERO (SOUTHEAST) 
20 Riverside Drive 
Lakeville, MA 02347 
(508)946^700 

Paul Taurasi: Regional Director 



DATA SOURCES: 

Community Boundaries of Massachusetts 
and neighboring states -EOEA/MassGIS 



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15 



National Ambient Air Quality Standards 



• Primary Standards - designed to protect public health against adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 

• Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings. 




POLLUTANT 



SO, 



CO 



3 



AVERAGING TIME* 



Annual Arithmetic Mean 




24-Hour 



3-Hour 



8-Hour 



-Hour 



-Hour 



8-Hour 



0.03 ppm (80 ug/m 3 ) 



0.14 ppm (365 ug/m 3 ) 



None 

9 ppm (10mg/m 3 ) 



35 ppm (40 mg/m 3 ) 



0.12 ppm (235 ug/m 3 ) 



0.08 ppm (157 ug/m 3 ) 



None 



0.50 ppm (1300 ug/m 3 ) 
Same as Primary Standard 



Same as Primary Standard 



Same as Primary Standard 



Same as Primary Standard 



The 1-hour standard is met when the daily maximum 1-hour concentration does not exceed 0.12 ppm at any one 
monitor on more than 3 days over any 3 year period. 

The 8-hour standard is met when the 3-year average of the 4th-highest daily maximum 8-hour average does not 
exceed 0.08 ppm at any one monitor. 




PM 25 

Particulates up to 
2.5 microns in size 



Calendar Quarter Arithmetic 
Mean 



Annual Arithmetic Mean 



Annual Arithmetic 
Mean 



24-Hour 



1 .5 ug/m 3 



0.053 ppm 100 ug/m 3 
15.0 ug/m 3 



65 ug/m 3 



Same as Primary Standard 



Same as Primary Standard 



Same as Primary Standard 



Same as Primary Standard 



The annual standard is met when the annual average of the quarterly mean PM2.5 concentrations is less than or 
equal to 15 ug/m 3 (3-year average). If spatial averaging is used, the annual average from all monitors within the 
area may be averaged in the calculation of the 3-year mean. 
The 24-hour standard is met when 98th percentile value is less than or equal to 65 ug/m 3 (3-year average). 



PM.o 

Particulates up to 
10 microns in size 



Annual Arithmetic 
Mean 



24-Hour 



50 ug/m 3 



150 ug/m 3 



Same as Primary Standard 



Same as Primary Standard 



The PM10 standard is based upon estimated exceedance calculations described in 40CFR Part 50, Appendix K. 
The annual standard is met if the estimated annual arithmetic mean does not exceed 50 ug/m . 
The 24-hour standard is attained if the estimated number of days per calendar year above 150 ug/m does not 
exceed one per year. 



ug/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 

* Standards based upon averaging times other than the annual arithmetic mean must not be exceeded 
more than once a year. 



16 



Pollutant Health Effects and Sources 



Ozone (0 3 ) 



Ground-level and stratospheric 3 are often confused. Stratospheric 3 is 

beneficial because it filters out the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. However, 

ground-level O3 is a health and environmental problem. This report pertains to 

ground-level 3 . 

O3 irritates mucous membranes. This causes reduced lung function, nasal 

congestion, and throat irritation, and reduced resistance to infection. 

O3 is toxic to vegetation, inhibiting growth and causing leaf damage. 

O3 weakens materials such as rubber and fabrics. 

O3 is unique in that it is formed by reactions between other pollutants in the 

presence of intense, high-energy sunlight occurring during the summer months. 

The complexity and subsequent time needed to complete these reactions results in 

the buildup of ground-level ozone concentrations far downwind from the original 

source of the precursors. 

Sources of ground-level O3 precursors, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, include 

motor vehicles and power plants. 



Carbon 
Monoxide (CO) 



CO reacts in the bloodstream with hemoglobin, reducing oxygen carried to organs 

and tissues. 

Symptoms of high CO exposure include shortness of breath, chest pain, headaches, 

confusion, and loss of coordination. The health threat is most severe for those with 

cardiovascular disease. 

High levels of CO are possible near parking lots and city streets with slow-moving 

cars, particularly during peak traffic times. 

Motor vehicle emissions are the largest source of CO, which is produced from 

incomplete combustion of carbon in fuels. 



Sulfur Dioxide 

(S0 2 ) 



• S0 2 combines with water vapor to form acidic aerosols harmful to the respiratory 
tract, aggravating symptoms associated with lung diseases such as asthma and 
bronchitis. 

• S0 2 is a primary contributor to acid deposition. Impacts of acid deposition include 
acidification of lakes and streams, damage to vegetation, damage to materials, 
degradation of visibility. 

• S0 2 is a product of fuel combustion (e.g., burning coal and oil). Sources include 
heat and power generation facilities and petroleum refineries. 



Nitrogen 
Dioxide (N0 2 ) 



• NO2 lowers resistance to respiratory infections and aggravates symptoms 
associated with asthma and bronchitis. 

• N0 2 contributes to acid deposition. [See S0 2 listing above for the effects.] 

• N0 2 and NO contribute to the formation of ozone. 

• N0 2 is formed from the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO). Major sources of NO are 
fuel combustion, heating and power plants, and motor vehicles. 



Continued on next page 



17 



Pollutant Health Effects and Sources, Continued 



Particulate 
Matter (PM, 
and PM 25 ) 



Particulate matter is tiny airborne particles or aerosols, which include dust, dirt, 

soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. 

The numbers 2.5 and 10 refer to the particle size, measured in microns, collected 

by the monitors. Several thousand PM 2 .5 particles could fit on the period at the end 

of this sentence. 

The small size of the particles allows entry into the human respiratory system. 

Long-term exposure allows the particles to accumulate in the lungs and affects 

breathing and produces respiratory symptoms. 

Particulate matter causes soiling and corrosion of materials. 

Particulate matter contributes to atmospheric haze that degrades visibility. 

Sources include industrial process emissions, motor vehicles, incinerators, heat and 

power plants, and motor vehicles. 



Lead (Pb) 



Lead is an elemental metal. 

The primary source for airborne lead used to be motor vehicles, but the use of 

unleaded gasoline has greatly reduced those emissions. Other sources are lead 

smelters and battery plants. 

Exposure to lead may occur by inhalation or ingestion of food, water, soil or dust 

particles. 

Children, infants, and fetuses are more susceptible to the effects of lead exposure. 

Lead causes mental retardation, brain damage, and liver disease. It may be a factor 

in high blood pressure and damages the nervous system. 












Public and Industrial Monitoring Network Descriptions 



2000 Public Monitoring Network 

The Air Assessment Branch operates a public ambient air monitoring network. 



Network size 



40 monitoring stations 

25 cities & towns with monitoring stations 



Number of 
continuous 
monitors 



Continuous monitors measure the air quality 24 hours a day. The data is reported as 
hourly means. 

• Criteria pollutant monitors - these an, pwii^tants for which National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards (NAAQS) have been set. 

• 8 - CO (carbon monoxide) 

• 13 - N0 2 (nitrogen dioxide). NO (nitrogen oxide) and NO x (total nitrogen 
oxides) are also measured by these monitors. 

• 1 5 - O3 (ozone) 

• 8 - S0 2 (sulfur dioxide) 

• Meteorological monitors track weather conditions. 

• 10 - BP (barometric pressure) 

• 10 - RH (relative humidity) 

• 10 - SOLAR RAD (solar radiation) 

• 12 - TEMP (temperature) 

• 13 - WS/WD (wind speed/wind direction) 

• 1 - Upper Meteorology - this monitor measures WS/WD and TEMP at various 
altitudes. This aids in the analysis of pollutant transport. 

• Other Monitors 

• 2 - NO y (Total Reactive Oxidized Nitrogen) 

• 4 - PAMS (Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station). These monitors 
measure VOCs (volatile organic compounds). 

• 1 - PM2.5 (particulate matter- 2.5 microns) 

• 1- Black Carbon 

• 1- Teom/Camms (particulate matter - 2.5 microns) 

• 1 - Acid Deposition. Precipitation is collected and analyzed for conductivity and 
acidic compounds that are harmful to the environment. This monitor, located in 
Waltham, is part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). 
Two other monitors in Massachusetts are also part of the NADP. They are 
located in Truro and Ware and are not operated by MADEP. 



Continued on next page 



19 



Public and Industrial Network Descriptions, Continued 



Number of 

intermittent 

monitors 



• Other Monitors 

Intermittent monitors take discrete samples for a specific time period. The 
samples are taken every day, every third day, or every sixth day. The data is 
averaged in 3-hour or 24-hour intervals. 



• Criteria pollutant monitors - these pollutants have National Ambient Air Quality 
Standards (NAAQS). 

• 1 - Pb (Lead) 

• 1 1 - PMio - (particulate matter - 1 microns) 

• 27 - PM 2 .5 - (particulate matter - 2.5 microns) 

• Non-criteria pollutant monitors - these pollutants do not have NAAQS. 

• 8 - PAMS (photochemical assessment monitoring station). These monitors 
measure VOCs (volatile organic compounds). 

• 1 - TSP (total suspended particulates) 

• 2 - Toxics. These monitors measure health-relevant VOCs. 

• 1 - Speciation. This monitors for PM 2 5, nitrates, and organics. 



2000 Industrial Monitoring Network 



Industries monitor air quality and submit data under agreement with MADEP. The data must be 
collected using quality assurance requirements established by MADEP and USEPA. 



Network size 



• 6 monitoring stations 

• 3 cities and towns with monitoring stations 



Number of 
continuous 
monitors 



Continuous monitors measure the air quality 24 hours a day. The data is averaged to 
provide 1 -hour averages. 

• Criteria pollutant monitors - these pollutants have National Ambient Air Quality 
Standards (NAAQS). 

• 1 - N0 2 (nitrogen dioxide). NO (nitrogen oxide) and NO x (total nitrogen 
oxides) are also measured by this monitor. 

• 6 - S0 2 (sulfur dioxide) 

• Meteorological monitors 

• 6 - WS/WD (wind speed/wind direction) 



Number of 

intermittent 

monitors 



Intermittent monitors take discrete samples for a specific time period. These 
monitors sample every sixth day, and the data is averaged for a 24-hour interval. 

• Other Monitors 

• 4 - TSP (total suspended particulates) 

• 4 - S0 4 (sulfate) 



20 



Public Site Directory 



CITY 


DATE SITE 






SITE LOCATION 


ESTABLISHED 


AIRS CODE 


PARAMETERS MONITORED 


ADAMS 


05/01/89 


25-003-4002 


o 3 


Mt. Greylock Summit 








AGAWAM 


01/01/82 


25-013-0003 


PAMS; 3 ;N0 2 ;NO; NO x ; TEMP; 


152 Westfield St. 






WS/WD; SOLAR RAD; RH; BP 


AMHERST 


04/01/88 


25-015-0103 


o 3 


N. Pleasant St. 








BOSTON 


01/01/65 


25-025-0002 


S0 2 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; CO; TEMP; 


Kenmore Square 






PM 10 ;TSP, Pb; PM 2 5 


590 Commonwealth Ave. 








BOSTON 


07/01/70 


25-025-0012 


PM 10 


Fire Headquarters 








Southampton St. 








BOSTON 


01/01/79 


25-025-0021 


S0 2 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; CO; 


340 Bremen St. 








East Boston 








BOSTON 


01/01/81 


25-025-0024 


PM.o 


Fire Station 








200 Columbus Ave. 








BOSTON 


01/01/85 


25-025-0027 


PM 10 ; PM 25 


1 City Square 








Charlestown 








BOSTON 


12/29/89 


25-025-0038 


CO 


Post Office Square 








BOSTON 


12/01/98 


25-025-0041 


3 ; NO; N0 2 ; NO x ; WS/WD; TEMP; 


Long Island 






SOLAR RAD; RH; BP; Toxics; PAMS 


BOSTON 


12/15/98 


25-025-0042 


3 ; S0 2 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; WS/WD; 


1 129 Harrison Ave. 






TEMP; SOLAR RAD; RH; BP; Black 


Roxbury 






Carbon; PM 2 5 ; Toxics, Speciation 
Teom/Camms 


BOSTON 


01/01/00 


25-025-0043 


PM 25 


174 North St. 








North End 






. 


CHICOPEE 


01/01/83 


25-013-0008 


PAMS; 3 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; TEMP; 


Westover Air Force Base 






WS/WD; SOLAR RAD; RH;BP; 
PM 25 


EASTON 


07/01/95 


25-005-1005 


PAMS; 3 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; WS/WD; 


Borderland State Park 






TEMP; SOLAR RAD;RH; BP 


FAIRHAVEN 


01/01/82 


25-005-1002 


3 ; WS/WD 


Wood School 








Scontuit Rd. 








FALL RIVER 


01/01/58 


25-003-3001 


PM 25 


Fire Headquarters 








165 Bedford St. 









Continued on next page 



21 



Public Site Directory, Continued 



CITY 

SITE LOCATION 


DATE SITE 
ESTABLISHED 


AIRS CODE 


PARAMETERS MONITORED 




FALL RIVER 
Fire Station 
Globe St. 


02/01/75 


25-005-1004 


S0 2 




FITCHBURG 
Fitchburg State College 
67 Rindae St. 


12/01/98 


25-027-2004 


PM 2 .5 




HAVERHILL 
Consentino School 
Washinston St. 


07/19/94 


25-009-5005 


PM 25 




LAWRENCE 
Wall Experiment Station 
37 Shattuck Street 


04/03/99 


25-009-6001 


PM 25 




LAWRENCE 
Storrow Park 
High St. 


01/01/80 


25-009-0005 


3 ; S0 2 ; WS/WD 




LOWELL 
Old City Hall 

Merrimack St. 


07/17/81 


25-017-0007 


CO 




LOWELL 
High School 
50 French Street 


10/31/00 


25-017-0008 


PM2.5 




LYNN 

Lynn Water Treatment Plant 

390 Parkland St. 


01/01/92 


25-009-2006 


PAMS; 3 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ,, WS/WD; 
TEMP; SOLAR RAD; RH; BP; PM 25 




NEW BEDFORD 
YMCA 

25 Water St. 


01/01/84 


25-005-2004 


PM 25 




NEWBURY 
US Department of the 

Interior 
Sunset Boulevard 


08/01/84 


25-009-4004 


PAMS; 3 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; WS/WD; 
TEMP; SOLAR RAD; BP 




PITTSFIELD 
Silvio Conte Federal 

Building 
78 Center St 


12/01/98 


25-003-5001 


PM 25 




OUINCY 
Fire Station 
Hancock St. 


01/01/76 


25-021-0007 


PM 25 




SPRINGFIELD 
Howard School 
59 Howard Street 


01/01/78 


25-013-0011 


PM 10 




SPRINGFIELD 

Liberty St. 


04/01/88 


25-013-0016 


S0 2 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; CO; PM 25 





Continued on next page 



22 



Public Site Directory, continued 



CITY 

SITE LOCATION 


DATE SITE 
ESTABLISHED 


AIRS CODE 


PARAMETERS MONITORED 


SPRINGFIELD 
1586 Columbus Ave. 


11/01/81 


25-013-2007 


CO; PM 10 ; PM 25 


STOW 

U.S. Military Reservation 


04/01/98 


25-017-1102 


3 ; Upper Meteorology; WS/WD; 
TEMP; BP; RH; SOLAR; PM 25 


TRURO 

Cape Cod National Park 

Fox Bottom Area 


04/01/87 


25-001-0002 


PAMS; 3 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; NOy; 
WS/WD; TEMP; BP; RH; SOLAR 
RAD 


WALTHAM 

U. Mass Field Station 

Beaver St. 


01/01/71 


25-017-4003 


Acid Deposition 


WARE 
Quabbin Summit 


06/01/85 


25-015-4002 


PAMS; 3 ; S0 2 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; NOy; 
PM 10 ; WS/WD; TEMP; BP; RH; 
SOLAR RAD; PM 25 ; PM 10 


WORCESTER 
Worcester Airport 


05/07/79 


25-027-0015 


3 ; WS/WD; TEMP 


WORCESTER 
YWCA 

2 Washington St. 


01/01/78 


25-027-0016 


PM 10 ; PM 25 


WORCESTER 
Fire Station 
Central St. 


01/01/82 


25-027-0020 


S0 2 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; CO; 
PM 25 


WORCESTER 

Grafton and Franklin Sts. 


07/28/92 


25-027-0022 


CO 



23 



Industrial Site Directory 



REPORTING ORGANIZATION 
CITY 
SITE LOCATION 


DATE SITE 
ESTABLISHED 


AIRS CODE 


PARAMETERS MONITORED 


ATLANTIC GELATIN 
Stoneham (Hill St.) 
Hill Street 


01/01/78 


25-017-1701 


S0 2 ; WS/WD 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 
Boston 
Long Island 


01/01/78 


25-025-0019 


S0 2 ; WS/WD; TSP; S0 4 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 

Dorchester 

Dewar Street 


01/01/78 


25-025-0020 


S0 2 ; WS/WD; TSP; S0 4 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 
East Boston 
Bremen Street 


01/01/79 


25-025-0021 


S0 2 ; WS/WD; TSP; S0 4 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 
South Boston 
East First Street 


01/01/93 


25-025-0040 


S0 2 ; N0 2 ; NO; NO x ; WS/WD; TSP; 
S0 4 


HAVERHILL PAPERBOARD 
Haverhill 

Nettle School 


09/10/85 


25-009-5004 


S0 2 ; WS/WD 



24 



Air Quality Related Web Sites 



Web sites of 
interest 



The table below is a listing of internet web sites that have air quality data or related 
information. 



Web Address 


Organization 


Description 


mass.gov/dep/ 


MADEP 


Massachusetts DEP Home Page. Links to MADEP 
programs, regions and publications. Links to the 
Daily Ozone Forecast during ozone season (Mayl 
through September 30). 


mass.gov/dep/ 
bwp/daqc/ 


MADEP 


MADEP Air Program Planning Unit Home Page. 


mass.gov/dep/ 
bwp/dhm/tura 


MADEP 


Toxic Use Production Program -establishes toxics 
use reduction as the preferred means for achieving 
compliance with any federal or state law or 
regulation pertaining to toxics production and use. 




www.airbeat.org 


MADEP/EMPACT 


Current AIR Quality in Roxbury - web page of 
MADEP and EMPACT's Roxbury monitor that 
shows current levels of ozone and particulates in the 
air. 


www.turi.org 


TURI 


Toxics Use Reduction Institute -a multi-disciplinary 
research, education, and technical support center 
located at the University of Massachusetts/Lowell. 
Promotes reduction in the use of toxic chemicals and 
the generation of toxic by-products in industry and 
commerce in Massachusetts. The web site includes 
a link to TURAData, which makes information 
available to the public about toxics use in their 
communities. 


www.epa.gov/airnow/ 
ozone.html 


USEPA 


Ozone Mapping Project - color-coded animated 
maps using near real-time data that show how ozone 
is formed and transported downwind. 


www.epa.gov/regionO 1 /eco/d 


USEPA 


Ozone maps of the Northeast U.S. using near real- 
time data. 


ailyozone/ozone.html 


www.epa.gov/regionO 1 /eco/o 
zone/smogalrt 


USEPA 


EPA Smog Alert System - sign up and receive e- 
mail alerts whenever Massachusetts predicts 
unhealthy ozone levels. 


www.epa.gov/air/data/ 


USEPA 


AIRSData - Access to air pollution data for the 
entire U.S. 


www.epa.gov/ceis/ 


USEPA 


Center for Environmental Information and Statistics 
- a single convenient source for information on 
environmental quality. 


www.epa.gov/oar/ 
oaqps 


USEPA 


EPA's Office of Air and Radiation/Office of Air 
Quality Planning and Standards 


www.epa.gov/regionO 1 


USEPA 


EPA Region 1 Home Page 


www.epa.gov/ttn/ 


USEPA 


EPA Technology Transfer Network - a collection of 
technical Web sites containing information about 
many areas of air pollution science, technology, 
regulation, measurement, and prevention. 





Continued on next page 



25 



Air Quality Related Web Sites, Continued 



Web sites of 
interest, 

continued 



The table below is a listing of internet web sites that have air quality data or related 
information. 



Web Address 


Organization 


Description 


www.epa.gov/enviro/ 
index iava.html 


USEPA 


EPA Enviro facts - data extracted from (4) major 
EPA databases: • PCS (Permit Compliance System) 
• RCRIS (Resource Conservation and Recovery 
Information System) • CERCLIS (Comprehensive 
Environmental Response, Compensation and 
Liability Information System) • TRIS (Toxic 
Release Inventory System) 




es.epa.gov/index.html 


USEPA 


Enviro$en$e Network - a free, public environmental 
information system. Provides users with pollution 
prevention/cleaner production solutions, compliance 
and enforcement assistance information, and 
innovative technology options. 


www.epa.gov/docs/ 
ozone/index.html 


USEPA 


EPA Ozone Depletion Home Page - learn about the 
importance of the "good" ozone in the stratospheric 
ozone layer. 


www.epa.gov/acidrain/ 


USEPA 


The Acid Rain Program - overall goal is to achieve 
significant environmental and public health benefits 
through reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide 
(S02) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), the primary 
causes of acid rain. Emissions data from the 
nation's largest power generating facilities is 
available here. 


Maine 

janus. state, me. us/dep/ 

air/ozone.htm 

New Hampshire 

www.des.state.nh.us/ 

ard/ozone.htm 

New York 
www.dec.state.nv.us/ 




Ozone predictions and some real-time ozone data 
from neighboring states (some states report other 
pollutants, as well). 


website/dar/bts/ozone/ 


oz4cast.html 

New Jersey 
www.state.nj.us/dep/ airmon/ 


Rhode Island 

www.state.ri.us/dem/ 

ozone/ozoneday.htm 



Continued on next page 



26 



Air Quality Related Web Sites, Continued 



Web sites of 
interest, 

continued 



The table below is a listing of internet web sites that have air quality data or related 
information. 



Web Address 



Organization 



Description 



www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/ 



USEPA 



Unified Air Toxics Website - This site is a central 
clearinghouse and repository for air toxics 
implementation information 



www.epa.gov/airtrends 



USEPA 



AIRTrends - information on USEPA's evaluation of 
status and trends in the nation's outdoor air quality. 



www.4cleanair.org/ 
links.html 



STAPPA/ALAPCO 



State and Territorial Air Pollution Program 
Administrators/Association of Local Air Pollution 
Control Officials - site has links to air quality related 
agencies and organizations. 



www.nescaum.org/ 



NESCAUM 



Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use 
Management - an interstate association of air quality 
control divisions from the six New England states, 
New York and New Jersey. 



www.wunderground. com/ 



University of 
Michigan 



The Weather Underground -. another good source of 
weather information in the US and world. 



cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/ wxnet 



University of 
Michigan 



The WeatherNet - a good source of weather 
information. Also has a great list of weather links. 



www.nws.noaa.gov/er/ box 



NWS 



The National Weather Service's Boston office 
provides local forecasts and climate information. 



www.wcvb.com/ 
weather/pollencount/ 



WCVB 



WCVB TV Pollen Count - provides the daily pollen 
and mold count. 



www.hazecam.net/ 



NESCAUM 
(CAMNET) 



Real-time Air Pollution Visibility Camera Network - 
live pictures and air quality conditions for urban and 
rural vistas across the Northeast U.S. 



www.arb.ca.gov/homepage.h 



CARB 



California Air Resources Board Home Page 



www.awma.org/ 



AWMA 



The Air & Waste Management Association - a 
nonprofit, nonpartisan professional organization that 
provides training, information, and networking 
opportunities to 12,000 environmental professionals 
in 65 countries. 



nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/ 



NADP 



National Atmospheric Deposition Program - maps 
and data from the nationwide precipitation 
monitoring network. Site also has data from the 
Mercury Deposition Network. 



www.lungusa.org/ 
index 



American Lung 
Association 



American Lung Association - public health 
advocacy organization involved in public policy, 
research, and education mission is to prevent lung 
disease 



27 



Section II 
Attainment and Exceedances of Air Quality Standards 
Attainment Status Summary 



What 
determines 
attainment 
status? 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) promulgated by USEPA set 
the concentration limits that determine the attainment status for each criteria 
pollutant. The NAAQS are listed on page 16. Massachusetts does not attain the 
public health standard for two pollutants: ozone (0 3 ) for the entire state and carbon 
monoxide (CO) in a few cities. The attainment status for 3 and CO is described in 
this section. 



CO attainment 
status 



Massachusetts has made significant progress in attaining the CO standard by 
implementing air pollution control programs. The last violation of the CO NAAQS 
occurred in Boston in 1986. The Boston metropolitan area was redesignated to 
attainment of the CO federal air quality standard by the USEPA in 1996. 

MADEP has requested that the USEPA redesignate the cities of Lowell, Springfield, 
Waltham, and Worcester to attainment for CO because monitoring data has been 
below the standard for many years. The USEPA has not yet ruled upon this request. 



Revision of the 
ozone (0 3 ) 
standard 



In July 1997, USEPA revised the 3 standard to include an 8-hour average. This 
provides increased health protection against longer-term exposures to 3 at lower 
concentrations. 



When USEPA finalized the 8-hour 3 NAAQS, it determined that the existing 
1-hour 3 standard would remain in place until an area monitored had no violations. 
Therefore, when an area no longer violated the 1-hour 3 standard, USEPA would 
revoke that standard for the area, and only the 8-hour 3 standard would apply. This 
procedure was intended to provide a smooth transition to the 8-hour 3 standard. 

When the 3 standard was revised, it was challenged in court. Below is an outline of 
this and related rulings. 

• May 14, 1999: In response to challenges filed by industry and others, the 
Washington D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that, although the 8-hour 3 
standard is retained, USEPA can not enforce it. 

• June 9, 1999: The 1-hour 3 standard was revoked for Eastern Massachusetts 
(including Worcester county and east) in a ruling published by the USEPA. These 
areas had no violations of the 1-hour 3 standard during the period 1996-1998. 

• October 25, 1999: Reacting to the May 1999 court ruling, USEPA proposed to 
reinstate the 1-hour 3 standard in all areas where it had been revoked, including 
Eastern Massachusetts. 



Continued on next page 



28 



Attainment Status Summary, Continued 



Revision of the 
Ozone (0 3 ) 
Standard, cont. 



July 20, 1999: USEPA issued a final ruling reinstating the 1-hour 3 standard and 
the prior classification (i.e., serious non-attainment) for Eastern Massachusetts. 
The rule became effective in January 2001 . 

November 7, 2000: The US Supreme Court heard oral arguments in USEPA's 
appeal of the Washington D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals' May 1999 decision. The 
main questions were whether setting a NAAQS under the Clean Air Act (CAA) is 
an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power by Congress, and whether one 
section of the CAA, which sets the requirements for areas in non-attainment of the 
1-hour O3 standard, has the effect of prohibiting USEPA from enforcing the 8-hour 
3 standard. 

February 27, 2001 : Ruling made by the US Supreme Court upheld the USEPA's 
revised O3 (and PM 2 5) NAAQS, but remanded to The District Court for 
consideration of implementation issues. 



One-hour O3 

Attainment 

status 



Massachusetts' 1-hour O3 standard attainment status has changed several times since 
July 1997 (see above), when the 8-hour standard was instituted. At that time, the 
designation for all of Massachusetts was non-attainment for the 1-hour O3 standard. 



Eight-hour 3 

attainment 

status 



In 1997, the USEPA adopted a new 8-hour ozone standard, which became the 
subject of litigation. As part of the designation process for the new standard, then 
Governor Celluci submitted a letter to the USEPA in July 2000. Based on 8-hour 
ozone data for the three-year period 1997-1999, he recommended that Eastern and 
Western Massachusetts be designated "non-attainment" under the new standard. 



Litigation related to the new standard continues and the USEPA has not made formal 
designations of attainment areas. In February 2001, the US Supreme Court upheld 
the new standards but remanded a number of legal issues back to the D.C. Circuit 
Court for reconsideration. There is no timetable for implementation of the new 
standards in light of the ongoing legal action. 



29 



Ozone Exceedances 



What 

determines an 
exceedance? 



An 3 exceedance occurs when a daily 3 concentration exceeds the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). There are two 3 standards based on 
different averaging times, 1 hour and 8 hours. An exceedance of the 1-hour standard 
is an hourly value during a day that is equal to or greater than 0.125 ppm. An 
exceedance of the 8-hour standard is an 8-hour averaged value during a day that is 
equal to or greater than 0.085 ppm. 



The difference 
between an 
exceedance and 
a violation 



Recording an exceedance of the O3 standards does not necessarily mean that a 
violation of the standard has occurred. Violations of the 1-hour and 8-hour standards 
are based upon 3-year averages of 3 data, as explained below. 

Violations of the 1-hour standard are determined using the number of expected 
exceedance days. An exceedance day is a day that records an 3 1-hour average 
greater than the standard of 0.12 ppm. A monitoring site can only have one reported 
exceedance per day - the hour with the highest average is used. The term "expected 
exceedance days" is used to account for both actual exceedance days and missing 
data. 

A violation of the 1-hour standard requires a 3-year average that is greater than one 
expected exceedance day. In other words, if there are 4 or more days during a 3-year 
period with O3 1-hour values that are equal to or greater than 0.125 ppm, a violation 
of the 1-hour standard has occurred. 



Violations of the 8-hour standard are determined using the annual 4th-highest daily 
maximum 8-hour 3 value. A violation requires a 3-year average of the annual 4th 
highest daily maximum 8-hour value that is equal to or greater than 0.085 ppm. In 
other words, the highest 8-hour value for each day during a year is ranked from 
highest to lowest. Then, the 4th-highest value for 3 consecutive years is averaged, 
the 3-year average is 0.085 ppm or greater, a violation of the 8-hour standard has 
occurred. 



If 



3 exceedances 
and violations 
during 2000 



During 2000, there was one exceedance day and one exceedance of the 1-hour 
standard. There were 5 exceedance days and 15 exceedances of the 8-hour standard. 

Using data from 1998-2000, only one out of 15 sites violated the 1-hour standard. 
The more stringent 8-hour standard was violated at all 15 of the 15 sites for the 
1998-2000 period. 



Continued on next page 



30 



Ozone Exceedances, Continued 



2000 Ot Exceedances (ppm) 







8-HOUR 


1-HOUR 


DATE 


SITE 


EXC 


EXC 


June 9, 2000 


TRURO 


.094 




June 10, 2000 


ADAMS 


.090 




June 10, 2000 


AGAWAM 


.089 




June 10, 2000 


AMHERST 


.086 




June 10, 2000 


CHICOPEE 


.090 




June 10, 2000 


FAIRHAVEN 


.105 




June 10, 2000 


LYNN 


.089 




June 10, 2000 


STOW 


.099 




June 10, 2000 


TRURO 


.126 




June 10, 2000 


WARE 


.091 




June 10, 2000 


WORCESTER 


.095 




June 10, 2000 


TRURO 




.141 


June 16, 2000 


WARE 


.089 




July 2, 2000 


FAIRHAVEN 


.090 




August 8, 2000 


FAIRHAVEN 


.085 




August 8, 2000 


TRURO I 


.091 





31 



Ozone Exceedances, Continued 



Exceedance 
days and total 
exceedance 
trends 



The following figures show the recent trends in exceedance days and the total 
number of 1-hour and 8-hour exceedances. 

The trend for the 1-hour data in Figure 12 shows a decline in the number of 
exceedances and exceedance days over the period. The trend in Figure 13 shows 
that, under the new more stringent 8-hour standard, there are a greater number of 
exceedances and exceedance days compared to the 1-hour standard. 



1-hr Q3 Exceedance Days & Total Exceedances 1987-2000 
Ozone exceeded the 1 -hour standard(0. 125 ppm) 



re 
Q 



00^ 


♦101 


80 - 




60- / 




40 / 


30 \14 


2oA 

r9 

n 


/*\ \8 



-♦ — # Exceedances 
-*— # Exceedance Days 



36 



12 



10 



1 



Figure 1 



1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 

Year 



8-hr Q3 Exceedance Days & Total Exceedances 1987-2000 
Ozone exceeded the 8-hour standard (0.085 ppm) 




-♦— # Exceedances 
Hi— # Exceedance Days 
98 



22 26 20 23 20 20 




Figure 13 



1987 1988 1989 1990 1'991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1993 1997 1998 1999 2000 

Year 



Continued on next page 



32 



Ozone Exceedances, continued 



1-hour 3 
violations 



A violation of the 1-hour standard requires a 3-year average greater than one for the 
number of expected exceedance days (the daily maximum O3 value exceeds 
0.12 ppm). In July 2000, the USEPA reinstated the 1 -hour standard. Massachusetts 
remains in non-attainment of the O3 standard in the western region of the state, 
including Berkshire, Franklin, Hampden, and Hampshire counties. 



Figure 14 shows the 3-year average of expected 1-hour exceedances at 
Massachusetts' sites for the period 1998-2000. None of the sites was in violation of 
the 1-hour standard during this period. Figure 15 shows the decrease in the number 
of 1-hour violation sites in Massachusetts during the last 13 years. 



3-year Average of Expected Annual l-hrQ3 Exceedance Days 
(if greater than 1 site is in violation) 



Bos (Long Is) 


0.0 






Bos. (Roxbury) 


0.0 
0.0 
0.0 








Adams 


1998-2000 




Agaw am 






Amherst 


0.0 






Chicopee 


0.0 






Easton 


0.0 






Fairhaven 


i IJ / 


Law rence 


0.0 




Lynn 


0.0 






Newbury 


0.0 






Stow 


0.0 






Truro 


. 


n.u 




: : 


Ware 


.,,,,-,, ■ |u./ 






0.3 


Worcester 


i 


_ 









Figure 14 



0.0 



0.5 



1.0 



1.5 



2.0 



2.5 



3.0 



Number of Sites in Violation of the 1-hr Q3 Standard 1987-2000 
(expected # of exceedance days greater than 1) 




Figure 15 



33 



Ozone Exceedances, continued 



8-hour 3 
violations 



A violation of the 8-hour standard requires a 3-year average of the annual 4th-highest 
daily maximum 8-hour value that is equal to or greater than 0.085 ppm. The 
standard became effective in 1997, so 1997-1999 was the first period to be used to 
designate attainment status. 

Based upon the period 1998-2000, seven of the 15 sites with 3 years of data were in 
violation of the 8-hour standard. Figure 16 shows the 8-hour violation status for the 
1 998-2000 period. Figure 1 7 shows the trend for the number of violation sites from 
1987-2000. The year reported is the final year of the 3-year running average. The 
number of violation sites has decreased. 







3-year Average of 8-hr 4th-highest Q3 Values 
(if greater or equal to 0.085 ppm site would be in violation) 









Adams 


1 MiZ. 






Agawam 


1 .077 






Amherst 


1 .076 






Bos. (Roxbury) 


1.079 






Bos. (Long Is) 


1 .060 


- 




Chicopee 




].086 


- 






Easton 


i .08 






Faimaven 




H .087 








Lawrence 


~J .068 






Lynn 




3.086 






12 


Newbury 


I.Ui 


- 




Stow 




] .086 








Truro 




1 .089 


- 






\Afere 




"3 -087 


- 






\Afcrcester 




1.088 


. 







Figure 16 



16 

£-12 

c 10. 

2 8 1 

2 6 
> 4 

* 2 





.050 .055 .060 .065 .070 .075 .080 .085 .090 .095 .100 .105 .110 .115 .120 

ppm 

Number of Sites in Violation of the 8-hrQ3 Standard 1987-2000 
(Ozone 3-year average 4th-high value is greater or equal to 0.085 ppm) 




13 13 



13 13 13 




10 10 10 10 10 10 




Figure 17 



87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 

Year 



95 



96 97 98 99 00 



34 



A Look at the 2000 Ozone (0 3 ) Season 



Ozone and The 2000 ozone season (May through September) in Massachusetts had the fewest 

weather during high-concentration values since the state started monitoring ozone in 1973. MADEP 
2000 measured 8-hour exceedances on only five days during the 2000 season, in contrast 

to 12 days of measured exceedances in 1998, the previous lowest year. 

Better control of chemical precursors (including VOCs and NOx) has undoubtedly 
led to the downward trend in exceedances of ozone NAAQS standards in recent 
years. However, key components of summertime meteorology conducive to high 
ozone production were largely absent for most of 2000. Although chemical 
precursors are present in the atmosphere throughout the year, only the combination 
of intense sunlight, hot temperatures and southwesterly wind (from other Eastern 
Seaboard Metropolitan Areas to the southwest) during the summer can produce a 
buildup of ground level ozone to unhealthful concentrations. In fact, it is unnecessary 
to operate most of the ozone monitoring network from October through March. 

Sustained hot weather periods failed to materialize consistently during the summer of 
2000. Upper atmospheric winds, which move weather systems across the country, 
usually weaken during the summer, enabling slower movement of air masses, which 
fosters the buildup of air pollution levels. However, during the summer of 2000, 
these upper winds stayed strong, which resulted in below-normal temperatures, 
frequent rains, and many air-mass changes in New England. Such conditions are not 
conducive to the formation of high ozone concentrations. 

Although ozone concentrations overall were lower than normal during 2000, 
summertime weather did break through during short periods, resulting in the 
recorded 8-hour exceedances. Highest levels were recorded at the Cape Cod site in 
Truro, which has been the focus of ozone exceedances in eastern Massachusetts over 
the last several seasons. 

Although the 2000 summer was cool with low ozone concentrations, some other 
Massachusetts summers have been hot with above-normal frequency of 90-degree 
days and higher ozone concentrations. The influence of meteorology on ozone 
concentrations in 2000 and in years past makes the evaluation of long-term- 
concentration trends and control strategies a significant challenge. 



35 



Daily Ozone (0 3 ) Forecast 



Introduction 



MADEP forecasts air quality daily, based on 3 , from May through September. 
Each day during that period, MADEP predicts the air quality as good, moderate, or 
unhealthy. 



Determining 
the air quality 
level rating 



The air quality rating is determined through analysis of National Weather Service 
observations and modeled predictions. Meteorological, 3 , and nitrogen oxides data 
from the statewide and regional monitoring networks are also used. 



The air quality The table below gives information about the ratings used in the daily air quality 
ratings forecasts. 



Air 
Quality 
Rating 


Adverse Health Effects 


Ways to Protect Your Health 


Good 


None expected. 


No precautions necessary. 


Moderate 


3 levels in the upper part of this range 
may cause respiratory problems in some 
children and adults engaged in outdoor 
activities. These effects are of particular 
concern for those with existing lung 
problems. 


People with respiratory diseases, such as 
asthma, and other sensitive individuals 
should consider limiting outdoor exercise 
and strenuous activities during the afternoon 
and early evening hours, when 3 levels are 
highest. 


Unhealthy 


As O3 levels increase, both the severity of 
the health effects and the number of people 
affected increase. Health effects include 
nose and throat irritation; chest pain; 
decreased lung function; shortness of 
breath; increased susceptibility to 
respiratory infection, and aggravation of 
asthma. 

It is important note that individuals react 
differently when exposed to various 3 
levels in the unhealthy range; some people 
experience problems at lower unhealthy 
levels, while others may not be affected 
until higher levels are reached. 


In general, everyone should limit strenuous 
outdoor activity during the afternoon and 
early evening hours, when 3 levels are 
usually the highest. 

If you are particularly sensitive to O3, or if 
you have asthma or other respiratory 
problems, stay in an area where it is cool 
and, if possible, where it is air-conditioned. 

If you want to take action to minimize 
exposure to unhealthy O3 levels, you should 
consider scheduling outdoor exercise and 
children's outdoor activities in the morning 
hours, when O3 levels are generally lower. 



Continued on next page 



36 



Daily Ozone (03) Forecast, continued 



Forecast 
availability 



The daily air quality forecast is available May through September from MADEP's 
website ( mass.gov/dep/ ) or by calling the Air Quality Hotline (1-800-882-1497). 



Ozone maps 



USEPA maintains internet web sites containing current and archived 3 maps and 
"real-time" 3 movies using 3 data that is provided by participating states: 
( www.epa.gov/region01/eco/dailyozone/ozone ) and ( www.epa.gov/airnow/ozone ). 



37 



State Implementation Plan (SIP) 



Overview 



The federal Clean Air Act requires states that are in non-attainment of a standard to 
develop and implement strategies to attain that standard. The State Implementation 
Plan (SIP) is the mechanism for documenting this process, and all revisions to the 
SIP must be approved by USEPA. 



Reasonable 
Further 
Progress SEPs 



The following list contains the measures that have been submitted to the USEPA 
since 1993 as part of Massachusetts' "Reasonable Further Progress" toward attaining 
the ozone standard. Note that this is not a comprehensive list of air regulations, as 
there are many MADEP air regulations that are not specifically credited in the 
"Reasonable Further Progress" SIPs. 



Air Pollution Programs that Demonstrate Reasonable Further Progress Toward 
O3 Attainment 

Stationary Point Source Controls: 

• Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for 50 Ton VOC Sources (310 
CMR7.18) 

• RACT for 50 Ton NO x Sources (3 1 CMR 7. 1 9) 

Stationary' Area Source Controls: 

• Reformulated Architectural and Industrial Maintenance Coatings (310 CMR 7.25) 

• Reformulated Traffic Markings (310 CMR 7.25) 

• Reformulated Consumer and Commercial Products (310 CMR 7.25) 

• Automotive Refinishing Controls (3 1 CMR 7. 1 8) 

On-Road Mobile Source Controls: 

• Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems at Gasoline Stations (310 CMR 7.24) 

• Federal Reformulated Gasoline 

• Enhanced Automobile Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) up to 10,000 Gross 
Vehicle Weight Rating (310 CMR 60.02) 

• Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program (3 1 CMR 7.40) 

• Federal Motor Vehicle Program (FMVCP) - Pre-Clean Act New Engine 
Performance Standards 

• Federal Tier I New Engine Performance Standards 

• Traffic Flow Improvements 

Off-Road Mobile Source Controls: 

• Federal Reformulated Gasoline for Off-Highway Equipment 

• Federal New Engine Performance Standards for Off-Highway Equipment 



Continued on next page 



38 



State Implementation Plan (SIP), continued 



Attainment In July 1998, MADEP submitted an Attainment Demonstration SIP to USEPA. In it, 

Demonstration MADEP demonstrated that some additional VOC and NO x reductions in 
SIP Massachusetts, coupled with large-scale regional NO x reductions, would likely allow 

Massachusetts to attain the one-hour 3 standard. 

The VOC and NO x reduction in Massachusetts will come from: 

• Additional federal measures (e.g., off-road and locomotive engine standards) 

• Final implementation of Massachusetts' previous SIP commitments (e.g., 
Enhanced Vehicle I/M, which began operation in fall 2000) 

• Enhancement of Massachusetts Stage II enforcement program 

• Municipal Waste Combustor NO x Reductions (310 CMR 7.08 (2)) 

• NO x Allowance Trading Program (3 1 CMR 7.27 and 3 1 CMR 7.28) 

MADEP also expects that the regional NO x reductions will be achieved through 
compliance with the program known as EPA's "NO x SIP Call" (63 FR 57356). It 
requires more than 20 eastern states to reduce NO x emissions by May 2003. 



39 



Section III 
Massachusetts Air Quality Data Summaries 



Ozone (0 3 ) Summary 



Introduction There were 15 O3 sites during 2000 in the state-operated monitoring network. 



3 health 
effects and 
sources 



Ground-level and stratospheric O3 are often confused. Stratospheric 3 is 

beneficial because it filters out the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. However, 

ground-level 3 is a health and environmental problem. This report pertains to 

ground-level O3. 

3 irritates mucous membranes. This causes reduced lung function, nasal 

congestion, and throat irritation, and reduced resistance to infection. 

3 is toxic to vegetation, inhibiting growth and causing leaf damage. 

3 weakens materials such as rubber and fabrics. 

O3 is unique in that it is formed by reactions between other pollutants in the 

presence of intense, high-energy sunlight during the summer months. The 

complexity and subsequent time needed to complete these reactions results in the 

build up of ground-level ozone concentrations far downwind from the original 

source of the precursors. 

Sources of ground-level 3 precursors, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, include 

motor vehicles and power plants. 



TheOj 
standard 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standard is listed below. 



• Primary Standards - designed to protect public health from adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 

• Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings from air pollution. 



POLLUTANT 


AVERAGING TIME | PRIMARY 


| SECONDARY j 


3 


1-Hour 1 0.125 ppm (235ug/m 3 ) 1 Same as Primary Standard 




8-Hour 1 0.085ppm (157 ug/m 3 ) 1 Same as Primary Standard J 


• The 1-hour standard applies to the entire state. The standard is met when the expected exceedance days (the daily 
maximum 1-hour concentration exceeds 0.125 ppm) do not exceed one per year (3-year average) at any one 
monitor. 

• The 8-hour standard is met when the 3-year average of the 4th-highest daily maximum 8-hour average does not 
exceed 0.085 ppm at any one monitor. ! 



ug/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 



Continued on next page 



40 



Ozone (03) Summary, continued 



2000 3 data 
summary 



A summary of the 2000 data during 3 season (April 1 - Sept. 30) is listed below. 
All of the sites achieved the requirement of 75% or greater data capture for the year. 





P 








UNITS: PPM 








VALS 












O 


M 








% 


-1 HR MAX- 




-8- 

HR 
1ST 


MAX 


IMA- 


VALS 


SITE ID 


C 


T 


CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 


OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


>.125 


2ND 


4TH 


>.085 


25-003-4002 


1 


2 


ADAMS 


BERKSHIRE 


MT. GREYLOCK 


81 


.092 


.088 





.090 


.078 


.072 


1 


25-013-0003 


1 


8 


AGAWAM 


HAMPDEN 


152S.WESTFIELD 


93 


.098 


.096 





.089 


.080 


.071 


1 


25-015-0103 


1 


2 


AMHERST 


HAMPSHIRE 


NORTH PLEASANT 


96 


.095 


.090 





.086 


.082 


.065 


1 


25-025-0041 


1 


2 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


LONG IS. HOSPITAL 


94 


.092 


.089 





.084 


.076 


.072 





25-025-0042 


1 


2 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


HARRISON AVE 


98 


.091 


.078 





.081 


.062 


.061 





25-013-0008 


1 


7 


CHICOPEE 


HAMPDEN 


ANDERSON ROAD 


97 


.113 


.099 





.090 


.084 


.079 


1 


25-005-1005 


1 


7 


EASTON 


BRISTOL 


BORDERLAND PARK 


92 


.098 


.088 





.081 


.077 


.072 





25-005-1002 


1 


2 


FAIRHAVEN 


BRISTOL 


L WOOD SCHOOL 


93 


.114 


.101 





.105 


.090 


.082 


3 


25-009-0005 


1 


1 


LAWRENCE 


ESSEX 


HIGH STREET 


95 


.082 


.072 





.067 


.062 


.060 





25-009-2006 


1 


8 


LYNN 


ESSEX 


390 PARKLAND AVE 


96 


.100 


.085 





.089 


.073 


.070 


1 


25-009-4004 


1 


7 


NEWBURY 


ESSEX 


SUNSET BOULEVARD 


96 


.097 


.085 





.082 


.074 


.071 





25-017-1102 


1 


2 


STOW 


MIDDLESEX 


US MIUTARY RESERV. 


90 


.102 


.086 





.099 


.077 


.073 


1 


25-001-0002 


1 


2 


TRURO 


BARNSTABLE 


FOX BOTTOM AREA 


97 


.141 


.107 


1 


.126 


.094 


.083 


3 


25-015-4002 


1 


7- 


WARE 


HAMPSHIRE 


QUABBIN SUMMIT 


96 


.104 


.096 





.091 


.089 


.076 


2 


25-027-0015 


1 


1 


WORCESTER WORCESTER 


WORCESTER AIRPORT 


96 


.098 


.098 





.095 


.081 


.076 


1 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (I = NAMS. 2 = 
SLAMS, 3 = OTHER, 7 = PAMS/NAMS, 8 = PAMS/SLAMS) % OBS = PERCENTAGE OF VALID DAYS MONITORED DURING 03 SEASON 1ST, 2ND 1-HR MAX = MAXIMUM I-HR VALUE FOR 
THE 1ST & 2ND HIGHEST DAY VALS > 0.125 = NUMBER OF MEASURED DAILY I -HR MAXIMUM VALUES GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 125 PPM (1-HR STANDARD) 1ST, 2ND, 4TH 8-HR 
MAXIMA = MAXIMUM 8-HR VALUE FOR THE 1 ST, 2ND & 4TH HIGHEST DAY VALS > 0.O85 = NUMBER OF MEASURED DAJL Y 8-HR MAXIMUM VALUES GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 
085 PPM (8-HR STANDARD) 



Lawrence 



^\dams 



Amherst 

Chicopee 4 

Agawam % 



Newbury 



Boston (two sites) 

1. Long Island 

2. Harrison Ave 



Ware 



2000 03 Monitoring Network 




41 



Ozone (O3) Summary, Continued 



Maximum 
1-hour O3 
Values 



The figures below display the 1st and 2nd daily maximum 1-hour values at each site 
during 2000. The 1st and 2nd maximum values are for different days. 

Q3 Maximum Daily 1-hour Values 
Standard = 0.125 ppm 



Adams 

Agawam 

Amherst 

Boston(Harrison Ave) 




55 



mmmmmmm MM^fWfM Wi nQ1 




.11* 



.114 



Newbury mmmmnuwmmwmmaamBMmum :097 



082 

^^.100 



.000 



.025 



.050 



.075 .100 
ppm 



.125 




Figure 18 



.150 



.175 



Adams 

Agawam 

Amherst 

Boston(Harrison Ave) 

Boston(Long Island) 



w 
(7) 



Easton 

Fairhaven 

Law rence 

Lynn 

New bury 

Stow 

Truro 

Ware 

Worcester 



Q3 2nd Maximum Daily 1-hour Values 
Standard = 0.125 ppm 





•msmmmmmm .090 

078 

089 



Chicopee —ET - ' ^M^A^^^m^^l .099 




SST ; , _ , . , ., w , xv... l ;i - -T7l .072 



mmMmmmmmmmmmmmm .085 



mMm^^mmmmmmmMim^m -085 



mmm^mimmmmm^mm^mmmA .086 



a.-^-..t^i..v-:.i-<t.. < /ir.-.-. - •■t~i .107 



:,.":"' ' ;;::?'! : : - V "i 



096 

BMgM 098 



.000 



.025 



.050 



.075 .100 
ppm 



.125 



42 



Figure 19 



.150 



.175 



Ozone (0 3 ) Summary, continued 



Maximum 8- 
hour O3 values 



The 1st and 4th maximum daily 8-hour 3 values for 2000 are shown below. 

A 3-year average of the 4th maximum value is used to determine attainment status. 



c/> 
0) 

CO 



Adams 

Agawam 

Amherst 

Boston( Harrison Ave) 

Boston(Long Island) 

Chicopee 

Easton 

Fairhaven 

Law rence 

Lynn 

New bury 

Stow 

Truro 

Ware 

Worcester 



.010 



en 

B 

CO 



Adams 

Agawam 

Amherst 

Boston( Harrison Ave) 

Boston(Long Island) 

Chicopee 

Easton 

Fairhaven 

Law rence 

Lynn 

New bury 

Stow 

Truro 

Ware 

Worcester 



.010 



Q3 Maximum Daily 8-hour Values 
Standard = 0.085 ppm 




Figure 20 



.035 



.060 



.085 



.110 



.135 



ppm 

Standard = 0.085 ppm 




Figure 21 



.035 



.060 .085 

ppm 

43 



.110 



.135 



Ozone (O3) Summary, continued 



1-hour O3 
exceedance 
day trends 



The long-term trends of 1-hour 3 exceedance days for each site are shown below. 

Q3 1-hour Exceedance Day Trends 
number of days 03 exceeded the standard (0.125 )ppm) 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 



00 



ACAMS 



AGAWAM 



•AMHERST 



-X— WARE 



^K— CHICOPEE 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 



99 00 



TRURO 



EASTON 



FAIRHAVEN 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 



00 



CHELSEA 



LYNN 



NEWBURY <- BOSTON(Long Is.) -*— BOSTON( Harrison Ave) 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 



00 



LAWRENCE 



WALTHAM 



WORCESTER 



-X— STOW 



Figure 22 






44 






Ozone (0 3 ) Summary, continued 



8-hour O3 The long-term trends of 8-hour 3 exceedance days for each site are shown below. 

t . Q3 8-hour Exceedance Day Trends 

Number of days 03 exceeded the standard (0.085) 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 



00 



AD4MS 



-AGAWAM 



AMHERST 



-*— WARE 



-*^CHICOPEE 




85 



86 87 



88 



89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 



00 



-♦— TRURO -m— EASTON —a— FAIRHAVEN 




85 86 



87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



r- 

> 



CHELSEA 



LYNN 



NEWBURY --o— BOSTON(Long Is.) — *— BOSTON(Harrison Ave) 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



Figure 23 



-♦—LAWRENCE 



WALTHAM 



WORCESTER 



-*— STOW 



45 



Sulfur Dioxide (S0 2 ) Summary 



Introduction 



There were 8 SO? sites during 2000 in the state-operated monitoring network. 
The Boston (Harrison Ave, Roxbury) site was opened in May. 



S0 2 health 
effects and 
sources 



• S0 2 combines with water vapor to form acidic aerosols harmful to the respiratory 
tract, aggravating symptoms associated with lung diseases such as asthma and 
bronchitis. 

• S0 2 is a primary contributor to acid deposition. Impacts of acid deposition include 
acidification of lakes and streams, damage to vegetation, damage to materials, 



S0 2 is a product of fuel combustion (e.g., burning coal and oil). Sources include 
heat and power generation facilities and petroleum refineries. 



The S0 2 
standard 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standard is listed below. 



• Primary Standards - designed to protect public health against adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 

• Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings from air pollution. 



POLLUTANT 


AVERAGING TIME* 


PRIMARY 


SECONDARY 


so 2 


Annual Arithmetic Mean 


0.03 ppm (80 ug/m 3 ) | None 


24-Hour 


0.14 ppm (365 ug/m 3 ) 1 None 


3-Hour 


None 1 0.50 ppm (1300 ug/m 3 ) 



ug/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 

* Standards based upon averaging times other than the annual arithmetic mean must not be exceeded 
more than once a year. 



Continued on next page 



46 



Sulfur Dioxide (S02) Summary, continued 



2000 S0 2 data 
summary 



A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. All of the sites achieved the 
requirement of 75% or greater data capture for the year. 





P 




UNITS:PPM 
















ANN 




C/V 






% 


MAX 24-HR 


MAX 3-HR 


MAX 1 


-HR 


ARITH 


SITE ID 


CT CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 


OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


1ST 


2ND 


1ST 


2ND 


MEAN 


25-025-0002 


1 1 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


KENMORE SQUARE 


97 


.033 


.029 


.050 


.050 


.059 


.055 


.006 


25-025-0021 


1 1 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


340 BREMEN ST. 


92 


.022 


.017 


.045 


.044 


.054 


.052 


.004 


25-025-0042 


1 1 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


HARRISON AVENUE 


98 


.027 


.023 


.041 


.037 


.071 


.058 


.007? 


25-005-1004 


1 1 FALL RIVER 


BRISTOL 


GLOBE STREET 


97 


.055 


.042 


.096 


.094 


.146 


.126 


.005 


25-009-0005 


1 1 LAWRENCE 


ESSEX 


HIGH STREET 


95 


.020 


.020 


.057 


.047 


.070 


.066 


.004 


25-013-0016 


1 1 SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


LIBERTY STREET 


98 


.025 


.023 


.060 


.044 


.081 


.060 


.005 


25-015-4002 


1 2 WARE 


HAMPSHIRE 


QUABBIN SUMMIT 


94 


.015 


.015 


.022 


.022 


.031 


.024 


.002 


25-027-0020 


1 1 WORCESTER 


WORCESTER 


CENTRAL STREET 


98 


.019 


.019 


.031 


.031 


.040 


.038 


.006 



? INDICATES THAT THE MEAN DOES NOT SATISFY SUMMARY CRITERIA (NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS FOR AT LEAST 1 QUARTER LESS 

THAN 75%) 

TO CONVERT UNITS FROM PPM TO uG/M 3 at standard conditions (25 Celsius, 760 mmhg) MULTIPLY PPM x 2620 

Standards: Annual Mean = 0.03 ppm 24-hour = 0.14 ppm 3-hour = 0.50 ppm 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (I = NAMS, 2 = 
SLAMS, 3 = OTHER) REP ORG = REPORTING ORGANIZATION % OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAX 24-HR, MAX 3-HR, MAX I-HR 1ST 2ND = FIRST AND SECOND HIGHEST 
VALUE FOR TIME PERIOD INDICATED OBS > .14 = NUMBER OF 24-HR AVG GREATER THAN 14 PPM (24-HR STANDARD) OBS > .50 = NUMBER OF 3-HR AVG GREATER THAN 50 PPM 
(3-HR STANDARD) ANN ARJTH MEAN = ANNUAL ARITHMETIC MEAN (STANDARD = 03 PPM) 




47 



Sulfur Dioxide (S0 2 ) Summary, Continued 



Summary of 
S0 2 Values 



The figures below present the 2000 data relative to the air quality standards. The 
2nd-maximum value is displayed because it is the value that the 3-hour and 24-hour 
standards apply to. The highest 24-hour and 3- hour values occurred in Fall River, 
and the highest annual mean occurred at the Boston and Chelsea sites. All of the 
values were well within the air quality standards. 

S02 2nd Maximum 24-hour Values 



BOSTON(HamsonAve) 

BOSTON (Bremen St) 

BOSTON(Kenmore Sq) 

w FALL RIVER 

W LAWRENCE [ 

SPRGFLD(LibertySt) 

WARE 

WORC(CentralSt) 



Standard = 0.14 ppm 




Figure 24 



.000 



020 



.040 



.060 ppm .080 



.100 



.120 



.140 



SQ2 2nd Maximum 3-hour Values 
Standard = 0.50 ppm 



BOSTON(Hamson Ave) 


I 


J 


BOSTON(BremenSt) 
BOSTON(Kenmore Sq) 


I 


— | 044 
1 050 


w FALL RIVER 


I 


I 


a. 

» LAWRENCE 


I 


— I .047 


SPRGFLD(LibertySt) 


I 


— | 044 


WARE 
WORC(Central St) 


□ 
I 


.022 
. .031 



•094 



0.0 



Figure 25 



01 



0.2 



ppm 



03 



0.4 



0.5 



S02 Annual Arithmetic Means 





Standard = 


0.03 ppm 






■ 








BOSTON(HamsonAve) 


|.uu7 




• 






- 


004 




BOSTON(BremenSt) 


I ; 




- 


: nnfi 




BOSTON(KenmoreSq) 


I 




- 


• nns 




w FALL RIVER 


1 




21 


004 




<" LAWRENCE 


i ; 






: oos 




SPRGFLD(LibertySt) 


1 




- 


, nn? • 




WARE 


i : 






! nnfi 




WORC(CentralSt) 


1 













Figure 26 



000 



005 



010 



015 ppm 



020 



025 



030 



48 



Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Summary, Continued 



S0 2 trends 



The long-term trends of the annual arithmetic mean for each S0 2 site are shown 
below. The trend has been stable the last few years and downward for the entire 
period. Massachusetts is well below the standard. 

S02 Trends 1985-2000 



Annual Arithmetic Means 
Standard = 0.03 ppm 



.OX 



a 

a 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



-♦— CHB_SB\ -m- BOSTON(KenrrDre Sq) -*— B06TON( Bremen St) 



a 

Q. 



.030 

.025 

.020 

.015 

.010 J^N 

.005 

.000 




tsfej 




8586 87 888990 91 9293949596 97 989900 



-♦— FALLRVBR 



LAVVRBMCE -k- VNALIrKM 



.030 



Q. 

Q. 




.000 



Figure 27 



85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



^—W0RC( Central St) 



V\ARE — *— SPRGFLD (Longhill) -x^- SPRGFLD (Liberty St) 



49 



Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2 ) Summary 



Introduction 



There were 13 N0 2 sites during 2000 in the state-operated monitoring network. 



N0 2 health 
effects and 
sources 



• N0 2 lowers resistance to respiratory infections and aggravates symptoms 
associated with asthma and bronchitis. 

• N0 2 contributes to acid deposition. [See S0 2 listing above for the effects.] 

• N0 2 and NO contribute to the formation of ozone. 

• N0 2 is formed from the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO). Major sources of NO are 
fuel combustion, heating and power plants, and motor vehicles. 



The N0 2 
standard 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standard is listed below. 



• Primary Standards - designed to protect public health against adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 

• Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings from air pollution. 



POLLUTANT 



AVERAGING TIME* 



PRIMARY 



SECONDARY 



NO, 



Annual Arithmetic Mean 



0.053 ppm 100 ug/m 3 Same as Primary Standard 



ug/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 



Continued on next page 



50 



Nitrogen Dioxide (N02) Summary, continued 



2000 N0 2 data All sites met the requirement of 75% data capture for the year. 
summary 

A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 





P 






UNITS: PPM 












CM 








% 


MAX 


1-HR 


ARITH 


SITE ID 


CT 


CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 


OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


MEAN 


25-013-0003 


1 8 


AGAWAM 


HAMPDEN 


1 52 SOUTH WESTFIELD STREET 


96 


.051 


.048 


.009? 


25-025-0002 


1 3 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


KENMORE SQUARE 


86 


.086 


.085 


.029 


25-025-0021 


1 1 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


340 BREMEN STREET, EAST BOSTON 


86 


.083 


.079 


.022 


25-025-0041 


1 8 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


LONG ISLAND HOSPITAL ROAD 


82 


.069 


.068 


.011? 


25-025-0042 


1 1 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


HARRISON AVE 


78 


.062 


.058 


.024? 


25-013-0008 


1 8 


CHICOPEE 


HAMPDEN 


ANDERSON ROAD AIR FORCE BASE 


93 


.062 


.061 


.013? 


25-005-1005 


1 8 


EASTON 


BRISTOL 


1 BORDERLAND ST. 


80 


.050 


.049 


.007? 


25-009-2006 


1 8 


LYNN 


ESSEX 


390 PARKLAND AVE. 


77 


.057 


.056 


.011? 


25-009-4004 


1 8 


NEWBURY 


ESSEX 


SUNSET BOULEVARD 


96 


.043 


.038 


.006? 


25-013-0016 


1 2 


SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


LIBERTY STREET PARKING LOT 


95 


.101 


.100 


.026 


25-001-0002 


1 8 


TRURO 


BARNSTABLE 


FOX BOTTOM AREA-CAPE COD 


96 


.037 


.030 


.003? 


25-015-4002 


1 8 


WARE 


HAMPSHIRE 


QUABBIN SUMMIT 


85 


.053 


.052 


.006 


25-027-0020 


1 2 


WORCESTER 


WORCESTER 


CENTRAL STREET PRE STATION 


89 


.074 


.063 


.018 



? INDICATES THAT THE MEAN DOES NOT SATISFY SUMMARY CRITERIA (NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS FOR AT LEAST 1 QUARTER LESS 

THAN 75%) 

TO CONVERT UNITS FROM PPM TO uG/M 3 at standard conditions (25 Celsius, 760 mmhg) MULTIPLY PPM x 1880 

Standard: Annual Arithmetic Mean = 0.053 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AJRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (1 = NAMS, 2 = 
SLAMS. 3 = OTHER. 7 = PAMS/NAMS, 8 = PAMS/SLAMS) REP ORG = REPORTING ORGANIZATION % OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAX I-HR 1ST 2ND = FIRST AND SECOND 
HIGHEST VALUE FOR TIME PERIOD INDICATED ARITH MEAN = ANNUAL ARITHMETIC MEAN 



Newbury 



Boston (four sites) 

1. Kenmore Sq 

2. Bremen St. (E. Boston) 

3. Long Island 

4. Harrison Ave 




51 



Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2 ) Summary, Continued 



N0 2 data 
summary 



The figures below present the 2000 data relative to the air quality standard. There is 
no 1-hour N0 2 ambient air quality standard, but there is one for the annual arithmetic 
mean. The highest mean occurred in Boston and was well below the standard. 



V) 

a 



AGAWAM 

BOSTON( Bremen St) 

BOSTON(Kenmore Sq) 

BOSTON(Long Island) 

BOSTON( Harrison Ave) 

CHICOPEE 

EASTON 

LYNN 

NEWBURY 

SPRGFLD( Liberty St) 

TRURO 

WARE 

WORC< Central St) 



000 



AGAWAM 

BOSTON Bremen St) 

BOSTON{Kenmore Sq) 

BOSTON(Long Island) 

BOSTON( Harrison Ave) 

CHICOPEE 

EASTON 

LYNN 

NEWBURY 

SPRGFLD( Liberty St) 

TRURO 

WARE 

WORC( Central St) 



3 
i/S 



NQ2 Maximum 1-hour Values 
(there is no federal standard) 



.051 



3.086 

1 .083 



.069 



2 062 
1.062 



.050 
-1.057 



.043 



.101 



U.037 



.053 



3.074 



Figure 28 



.050 100 PP m .150 .200 

NQ2 Annual Arithmetic Means 
Standard = 0.05 ppm 



.029 



.250 



I I .009 








I I 




I 1 022 


- 




I | .011 








| I U 'A 






1 1.013 








1 1 00/ 








1 1.011 








i | .006 








I ! u/i;. 


| 1 .003 




I | .006 





Figure 29 



.000 



.010 



.018 



.020 ppm 



.030 



.040 



.050 



52 



Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2 ) Summary, Continued 



NO2 trends 



The long-term trends of the annual arithmetic means for each N0 2 site are shown 
below. The trend has been stable the last few years and downward for the entire 
period. Massachusetts is below the standard. 



.000 



NQ2 Trends 1985-2000 

Annual Arithmetic Means 

Standard = 0.05 ppm 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



-♦—CHELSEA 



BOSTON(Kenmore Sq) 



BOSTON(Long Island) 



O- BOSTON( Bremen St) — *— BOSTON( Harrison Ave) — •— LYNN 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



-•—BOSTON 



TRURO 



NEWBURY 



-X— WORC(Central St) 




.000 



85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



Figure 30 



-4— AGAWAM 



CHIGOPEE 



-*— SPRGFLD( Liberty St) 



-K— WARE 



53 



Carbon Monoxide (CO) Summary 



Introduction There were eight CO sites during 2000 in the state-operated monitoring network. 



CO health 
effects and 
sources 



• CO reacts in the bloodstream with hemoglobin, reducing oxygen carried to organs 
and tissues. 

• Symptoms of high CO exposure include shortness of breath, chest pain, headaches, 
confusion, and loss of coordination. The health threat is most severe for those with 
cardiovascular disease. 

• High levels of CO are possible near parking lots and city streets with slow-moving 
cars, particularly during peak traffic times. 

• Motor vehicle emissions are the largest source of CO, which is produced from 
incomplete combustion of carbon in fuels. 



The CO 
standard 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standard is listed below. 



• Primary Standards - designed to protect public health against adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 

• Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings from air pollution. 



POLLUTANT 


| AVERAGING TIME* 


| PRIMARY 


| SECONDARY 


CO 


8-Hour 


9 ppm (10 mg/m 3 ) 


Same as Primary Standard 


1-Hour 


35 ppm (40 mg/m 3 ) 


Same as Primary Standard 



u.g/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 

* Standards based upon averaging times other than the annual arithmetic mean must not be exceeded 
more than once a year. 



Continued on next page 



54 



Carbon Monoxide (CO) Summary, continued 



2000 CO data 
summary 



All of the sites achieved the requirement of 75% or greater data capture for the year. 
A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 





P 








UNITS: PPM 








OBS 






OBS 




O 


M 








% 


MAX 1 1 ik> 


> 


MAX 8-HR 


> 


SITE ID 


C 


T 


CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 


OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


35 


1ST 


2ND 


9 


25-025-0002 


1 


2 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


KENMORE SQ., 590 COMM. AVE 


86 


3.6 


3.4 





3.0 


2.3 





25-025-0021 


1 


1 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


340 BREMEN ST., E. BOSTON ' 


92 


3.5 


3.0 





2.4 


2.4 





25-025-0038 


1 


1 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


FEDERAL POST OFFICE BLDG 


90 


3.0 


2.9 





2.2 


2.1 





25-017-0007 


1 


2 


LOWELL 


MIDDLESEX 


OLD CITY HALL MERRIMACK ST 


94 


6.0 


5.3 





3.5 


3.2 





25-013-0016 


1 


1 


SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


LIBERTY STREET PARKING LOT 


94 


5.1 


5.1 





4.4 


4.0 





25-013-2007 


1 


1 


SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


EAST COLUMBUS AVENUE 


93 


6.5 


5.4 





4.0 


3.6 





25-027-0020 


1 


2 


WORCESTER 


WORCESTER CENTRAL STREET FIRE STATION 


91 


4.8 


4.4 





2.8 


2.6 





25-027-0022 


1 


2 


WORCESTER 


WORCESTER FRANKLIN/GRAFTON STREETS 


91 


9.5 


9.0 





6.1 


3.3 






Standards: 1-hour = 35 ppm 8-hour = 9 ppm 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 15 

SITE ID = AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (I = NAMS, 2 = 
SLAMS, 3 = OTHER) % OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAX I-HR 1ST 2ND = FIRST AND SECOND HIGHEST VALUE FOR TIME PERIOD INDICATED OBS > 35 - NUMBER OF 1-HR 
AVG GREATER THAN 35 PPM (I-HR STANDARD) OBS > 9 = NUMBER OF 8-HR AVG GREATER THAN 9 PPM (8-HR STD) 



Boston (three sites) 

1. Kenmore Sq 

2. Bremen St. (E. Boston) 

3. Post Office Sq. 




55 



Carbon Monoxide (CO) Summary, continued 



CO data 
summary 



The figures below present the 2000 data relative to the air quality standards. The 
2nd-maximum value is displayed because it is the value to which the standards 
apply. The highest 1-hour value occurred in Worcester and the highest 8-hour value 
occurred in Springfield. Both were well within the standard. 



CO 2nd Maximum 1-hour Values 
Standard = 35 ppm 



BOSTON( Bremen St) 

BOSTON{KenmoreSq) 

BOSTON(RostOfc) 

LOWELL 
Sites 
SPRGFLD(E Columbus Ave) 

SPRGFLD( Liberty St) 

WORC( Central St) 

WORQ Franklin St) 





o n 


1 




O A 


I r- 


-> q 


1 r° 




bo 




0.4 




|W.1 


A A 


1 44 




1 



9.0 



10 



Figure 31 



15 20 

ppm 



25 



30 



35 



CO 2nd Maximum 8-hour Values 
Standard = 9 ppm 





° A 


3.2 
t r, 




BOSTON( Bremen St) 


Z.H 




- 


n •» 




BOSTON(Kenmore Sq) 


cL.J 


1 


- 






BOSTON(PostOfc) 


2.1 










LOWELL 






Sites 






SPRGFLD(E Columbus Ave) 




JO 








a n 


■ 


SPRGFLD( Liberty St) 




H.U 








-j 3.3 




WORQ Central St) 


lb 










WORQ Franklin St) 













Figure 32 



ppm 



56 



Carbon Monoxide (CO) Summary, Continued 



CO trends 



The long-term trends of the 2nd-maximum 8-hour value for each CO site are shown 
below. The data shows a yearly variability at most sites, with the overall trend being 
downward. Massachusetts is below the standard. 



CO Trends 1985-2000 

2nd Maximum 8-hour Values 

Standard = 9 ppm 



12.0 




0.0 i 



85 86 



87 



88 89 



90 



91 92 



93 



94 95 96 97 98 99 



00 



-♦— BOSTON(Kenmore Sq) 
-*— BOSTON(Bremen St) 



-■— BOSTON(Sumner) 
-X™ BOSTON(Post Office Sq) 



12.0 



E 

Q. 

a 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



L0V\O_L 



WDRQCentral St) 



-*— V\DRC(Franklin St) 



12.0 



E 
a 
a 




85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 



Figure 33 



-♦— SPRGFLD(Liberty St) 



SPRGFLD(E Columbus) 



57 



Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM10) Summary 



Introduction 



There were eight PMi sites (three sites had collocated monitors-two of the same 
sampler for precision purposes) during 2000 in the state-operated monitoring 
network. The network was trimmed from the 16 sites operated during 1998. Those 
areas that had sites closed are now represented in the PM 2 5 network. 



Particulate 

matter 

information 



Particulate matter is tiny airborne particles or aerosols, which include dust, dirt, 

soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. 

The numbers 2.5 and 10, refer to the particle size, measured in microns, which are 

collected by the monitors. Several thousand PM 2 .5 particles could fit on the period 

at the end of this sentence. 

The small size of the particles allows entry into the respiratory system. Long-term 

exposure allows the particles to accumulate in the lungs and affects breathing and 

respiratory symptoms. 

Particulate matter causes soiling and corrosion of materials. 

Particulate matter contributes to atmospheric haze that degrades visibility. 

Sources include industrial process emissions, motor vehicles, incinerators, heat and 

power plants, agriculture, and construction activities. 



The PM 10 
standard 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standard is listed below. 



Primary Standards - designed to protect public health against adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 
Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings from air pollution. 



POLLUTANT 


AVERAGING TIME* 


PRIMARY 


SECONDARY 


PM,o 

Particulates up to 
10 microns in size 


Annual Arithmetic 
Mean 


50 ug/m 3 


Same as Primary Standard 1 


24-Hour 


1 50 ug/m 3 


Same as Primary Standard 


• The PM 10 standard is based upon estimated exceedance calculations described in 40CFR Part 50, Appendix K. 

• The annual standard is met if the estimated annual arithmetic mean does not exceed 50 ug/m 3 . 

• The 24-hour standard is attained if the estimated number of days per calendar year above 1 50 ug/m 3 does not 
exceed one per year. J 



ug/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 

* Standards based upon averaging times other than the annual arithmetic mean must not be exceeded 
more than once a year. 



Continued on next page 



58 



Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM10) Summary, continued 



2000 PM 10 data 
summary 



Seven out of the eight sites achieved the requirement of 75% or greater data capture 
for each calendar quarter. Sampler failure caused Boston, Southampton St. not to 
achieve the data capture requirement. 



A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 





P 




UNITS: UG/CU METER 














WTD 




O rV 






% 


-MAX 24 HR-VALUE- 


VALS 


> 150 ARITH 


SITE ID 


C T CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 


OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


3RD 


4TH 


ME AS 


EST MEAN 


25-025-0002 


1 1 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


KENMORE SQUARE 


89 


73 


53 


47 


46 





0.00 25 


25-025-0012 


1 1 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


115 SOUTHAMPTON ST. 


66 


42 


34 


34 


33 





0.00 18? 


25-025-0012 


2 3 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


115 SOUTHAMPTON ST. 


20 


33 


31 


26 


26 





0.00 20? 


25-025-0024 


1 1 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


200 COLUMBUS AVE. 


75 


57 


46 


45 


36 





0.00 24? 


25-025-0027 


1 1 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


ONE CITY SQUARE 


86 


70 


59 


58 


56 





0.00 29 


25-025-0027 


3 3 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


ONE CITY SQUARE 


78 


63 


59 


56 


55 





0.00 29? 


25-013-0011 


2 2 SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


59 HOWARD STREET 


86 


53 


52 


43 


38 





0.00 21 


25-013-2007 


1 1 SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


EAST COLUMBUS AVE. 


91 


77 


57 


56 


53 





0.00 28 


25-013-2007 


3 3 SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


EAST COLUMBUS AVE. 


80 


79 


57 


57 


52 





0.00 28? 


25-015-4002 


1 2 WARE 


HAMPSHIRE 


QUABBIN SUMMIT 


91 


54 


25 


22 


22 





0.00 11 


25-027-0016 


1 1 WORCESTER 


WORCESTER 2 WASHINGTON ST. 


89 


80 


54 


45 


41 





0.00 19 



? INDICATES THAT THE MEAN DOES NOT SATISFY SUMMARY CRITERIA (NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS FOR AT LEAST 1 QUARTER LESS 
THAN 757°) 

Standards: 24-hour = 150 ug/m 3 Annual Arithmetic Mean = 50 u.g/m 3 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = .AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (I = NAMS, 2 = 
SLAMS. 3=OTHER) % OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAXIMUM VALUE 1ST, 2ND, 3RD, 4TH = I ST 2ND. 3RD, AND 4TH HIGHEST 24-HOUR VALUES FOR THE YEAR VALS>I50 
MEAS = NUMBER OF VALUES GREATER THAN 150 (ig/m' (PM-10 STANDARD) VALS > 150 EST = NUMBER OF EXPECTED VIOLATIONS WTD ARITH MEAN = WEIGHTED ANNUAL 
ARJTHMETIC MEAN (STANDARD = 50 \iajm 1 ) ? = INDICATES THAT NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS WERE INSUFFICIENT TO CALCULATE MEAN THE DATA CAPTURE AT A SITE MUST 
EXCEED 75% FOR EACH QUARTER 



Boston (four sites) 

1. City Square (Charlestown) 

2 Columbus Ave. 

3. Kenmore Sq 

4. Southampton St. 




2000 PM10 Monitoring Network 



I 



i 

r 

f 



59 



Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM10) Summary, Continued 



PM, data 
summary 



The figures below present the 2000 data relative to the air quality standards. The 
highest 24-hour and annual arithmetic mean values each occurred in Boston, City 
Square. Both were well within the standards. 



PM10 2nd Maximum 24-hour Values 
Standard - 150 ug/m3 



BOSTON(CITY SQ) 



BOSTON(COLUMBUS AVE) p 



BOSTON(KENMORE SQ) £ 



BOSTON(SOUTHAMPTON) [ 



SPRGFLD(E COLUMBUS AVE) g 
SPRGFLD(HOWARD ST) gl 



WORCESTER(WASHINGTON 
ST) 



59 



I 46 



34 



WARE } 1 25 



30 



3 53 



57 



3 52 



54 



60 90 
ug/m3 



Figure 34 



120 



150 



PM10 Annual Arithmetic Mean 
Standard - 50 ug/m3 



BOSTON(CITY SQ) 

BOSTON(COLUMBUS AVE) 

BOSTON(KENMORE SQ) 

BOSTON(SOUTHAMPTON) 

SPRGFLD(E COLUMBUS AVE) 

SPRGFLD(HOWARD ST) 

WARE i 

WORCESTER(WASHINGTON 
ST) 





. ■■>..:..-: 






4 29 






• < .-' ■ 


, ■■ ■ ';.:,.. 


124 




I25 


' 


1118 


■ 


3)28 




'-', ■ w 'i" ■ • 






121 














■ 11 








■ : n 






11 19 





10 



20 30 

ug/m3 



Figure 35 



40 



50 



60 



Particulate Matter 10-Microns (PM i0 ) Summary, Continued 



PMin trends 



PMio long-term trends are shown of the annual arithmetic mean for each PM )0 site. 
The data shows a yearly variability at most sites, with the overall trend being 
downward. 



PMIO Trends 1989-2000 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 

Standard = 50 ug/m3 



50 r 




89 90 91 92 

— ♦— BOSTON(City Sq) 
—a— BOSTON(KenrrDre Sq) 



93 



94 



95 



96 97 98 99 

m— BOSTON(Columbus Ave) 
*— BOSTON(Southharrpton St) 



00 




89 



90 



91 



92 



93 



94 



95 



96 



97 



98 



99 



00 



Figure 36 



-4— SPRGFLD(E Columbus Ave) 
■a— W3RC(Washington St) 



SPRGFLD(Howard St) 



-x-VWRE 



61 



Particulate Matter 2.5-Microns (PM2.5) Summary 



Introduction 



The PM 2 5 monitoring network was set up during late 1998 and monitoring began in 
January 1999. There were 21 PM 25 sites (five sites had collocated monitors) during 
2000 in the state-operated monitoring network. 



Particulate 

matter 

information 



Particulate matter is tiny airborne particles or aerosols, which include dust, dirt, 
soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. 

The numbers 2.5 and 10, refer to the particle size, measured in microns, which are 
collected by the monitors. Several thousand PM 2 5 particles could fit on the period 
at the end of this sentence. 

The small size of these particles allows entry into the respiratory system. Long- 
term exposure allows the particles to accumulate in the lungs and affects breathing 
and respiratory symptoms. 

Particulate matter causes soiling and corrosion of materials. 
Particulate matter contributes to atmospheric haze that degrades visibility. 
Sources include industrial process emissions, motor vehicles, incinerators, heat and 
power plants, agriculture, and construction activities. 



The evolution 
of the 
particulate 
standard 



On a periodic basis USEPA conducts a review of the national ambient air quality standards 
(NAAQS). The process includes a compilation and scientific assessment of all the health and 
environmental effects information available. The information that is gathered undergoes 
detailed reviews by the scientific community, industry, public interest groups, the general 
public, and the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) - a Congressionally 
mandated group of independent scientific and technical experts. Based on the scientific 
assessments and taking into account the recommendations of CASAC, the EPA administrator 
decides whether or not it is appropriate to revise the standards. 

The particulate matter standard has evolved over the years as new studies have been 
published on the health effects of particulate matter. The trend has been to control 
particulates of smaller sizes and to more stringent concentrations, as studies have linked 
exposure to fine particles with adverse health effects. 

• 1970 - The standard was based on Total Suspended Particulates (TSP). The standards 
were set at 260 ug/m (24-hours) and 75 ug/m (annual geometric mean). 

• 1987 - The TSP standard was replaced by the PM10 standard (particulate matter less than 
10 microns in size). The PM ]0 standards were set at 150 ug/m 3 (24-hours) and 50 ug/m 3 
(annual arithmetic mean). 

• 1997 - The PM 2 5 standard (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) was promulgated in 
addition to the PM 10 standard. The PM 2 5 standards are set at 65 ug/m 3 (24-hours) and 1 5 
ug/m 3 (annual arithmetic mean). 

• 2000 - The US Supreme Court heard oral arguments in USEPA's appeal of the Washington 
D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals May 1999 decision. The main question is whether setting a 
NAAQS under the Clean Air Act (CAA) is an unconstitutional delegation of legislative 
power by Congress. 

• 2001 -Ruling made by the US Supreme Court upholding the USEPA's revised 3 and 
PM 2 5 NAAQS, but remanding to The District Court for consideration of implementation 
issues. 



Continued on next page 



62 



Particulate Matter 2.5-Microns (PM2.5) Summary, Continued 



2000 PM 2 . 5 
data capture 
problems 



In 2000, PM 2 .5 data collection improved greatly from that of 1999, the startup year. As 
familiarity with the methodology improved, data capture also improved. However, as the 
year progressed the durability of the sampling equipment came into question. The 
monitors did not perform well in winter conditions, and there were many problems that 
caused them to cease operation. Machine malfunctions caused 67% of all of the void 
PM2.5 data samples in 2000. Collection error, the second most common reason to void 
data, accounted for only 1 1% of data loss. 



Ongoing communications with the manufacturer has resulted in the receipt and 
installation of more durable parts and the enactment of a more stringent preventative 
maintenance program. While such increased effort impacts our ability to move forward 
with other monitoring activities, MADEP is counting on it to raise data capture to a 
percentage more consistent with the programs goals. 

Designation of attainment for the PM 2 5 standard in Massachusetts is based on three years 
of data. The use of 2000 data for designation purposes will take into consideration data 
quality and capture concerns. 



The PM 2 5 
standard 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standard is listed below. Designation for the 
PM 2 .5 standard requires 3 years of data. 1999 was the first year of monitoring. 



• Primary Standards - designed to protect public health against adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 

• Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings from air pollution. 



POLLUTANT 


AVERAGING TIME 


PRIMARY 


SECONDARY jj 


PM 2S 

Particulates up to 
2.5 microns in size 


Annual Arithmetic 
Mean 


15.0 ug/m 3 1 Same as Primary Standard Jj 


24-Hour 


65 ug/m 3 1 Same as Primary Standard j 


• The annual standai 
equal to 1 5 ug/m 3 
area may be averaj 

• The 24-hour stand 


r d is met when the annual average of the quarterly mean PM 2 5 concentrations is less than or 
(3-year average). If spatial averaging is used, the annual average from all monitors within the 
^ed in the calculation of the 3 -year mean. j 
ard is met when 98th percentile value is less than or equal to 65 ug/m 3 (3-year average). 



ug/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 



Continued on next page 



63 



Particulate Matter 2.5-Microns (PM2.5) Summary, Continued 



2000 PM 2 s data 
summary 



A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. Designation for the PM 2 5 standard requires 3 
years of data. 1999 was the first year of monitoring. Data capture rates were better than in 
1999 but more than one third are still low. See previous page for more information. 



SITE ID 



P 

O M 

C T CITY 



COUNTY 



UNITS: UG/CU METER 



ADDRESS 



% 
OBS 



1ST 



-MAX 24 
2ND 



HR-VALUE- 
3RD 4TH 



ARITH 
MEAN 



25-025-0002 

25-025-0027 

25-025-0027 

25-025-0042 

25-025-0043 

25-023-0004 

25-023-0004 

25-023-0004 

25-013-0008 

25-005-3001 

25-027-2004 

25-009-5005 

25-009-6001 

25-017-0008 

25-009-2006 

25-005-2004 

25-003-5001 

25-021-0007 

25-021-0007 

25-013-0016 

25-013-0016 

25-013-2007 

25-017-1102 

25-015-4002 

25-027-0016 

25-027-0020 

25-027-0020 



2 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


KENMORE SQUARE 


76 


35.5 


29.5 


27.6 


27.1 


13.53? 


2 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


ONE CITY SQUARE 


42 


38.9 


38.2 


38.0 


35.9 


13.87 


3 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


ONE CITY SQUARE 


25 


23.8 


23.5 


20.1 


19.8 


12.26? 


2 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


HARRISON AVENUE 


76 


36.9 


36.0 


34.7 


34.1 


12.95 


2 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


174 NORTH STREET 


72 


38.0 


38.0 


35.2 


31.5 


15.55 


2 BROCKTON 


PLYMOUTH 


120 COMMERCIAL ST. 


78 


27.3 


25.7 


25.5 


25.4 


10.59? 


3 BROCKTON 


PLYMOUTH 


120 COMMERCIAL ST. 


70 


27.3 


26.1 


24.6 


23.8 


9.80? 


2 BROCKTON 


PLYMOUTH 


120 COMMERCIAL ST. 


53 


28.0 


25.7 


24.6 


22.0 


11.61? 


2 CHICOPEE 


HAMPDEN 


ANDERSON ROAD 


59 


49.6 


44.8 


32.3 


30.3 


10.52 


2 FALL RIVER 


BRISTOL 


CENTRAL FIRE STATION 


90 


47.1 


29.6 


28.8 


27.7 


11.71 


2 FITCHBURG 


WORCESTER 


67RINDGEROAD 


72 


23.2 


21.1 


20.7 


20.4 


9.82 


2 HAVERHILL 


ESSEX 


WASHINGTON STREET 


84 


36.0 


31.5 


27.3 


26.2 


10.97 


2 LAWRENCE 


ESSEX 


37SHATTUCKST 


59 


25.6 


19.1 


19.0 


18.4 


9.78? 


2 LOWELL 


MIDDLESEX 


50 FRENCH STREET 


44 


27.4 


21.1 


16.9 


16.6 


9.98? 


2 LYNN 


ESSEX 


390 PARKLAND AVE. 


76 


28.0 


27.2 


26.3 


22.9 


11.45 


2 NEW BEDFORD 


BRISTOL 


YMCA,25 WATER ST. 


70 


29.3 


27.6 


27.4 


26.2 


1 1 .83? 


2 PITTSFIELD 


BERKSHIRE 


78 CENTER STREET 


87 


45.2 


38.4 


28.8 


26.2 


11.85 


2 QUINCY 


QUINCY 


HANCOCK STREET 


52 


29.7 


26.4 


23.4 


18.6 


9.91? 


3 QUINCY 


QUINCY 


HANCOCK STREET 


35 


26.5 


25.4 


24.0 


15.4 


9.81? 


2 SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


LIBERTY STREET 


96 


46.1 


37.6 


36.7 


35.7 


13.77 


3 SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


LIBERTY STREET 


75 


47.0 


38.0 


36.6 


33.0 


13.24 


2 SPRINGFIELD 


HAMPDEN 


EAST COLUMBUS AVE. 


82 


52.4 


39.5 


37.2 


36.5 


15.35 


2 STOW 


MIDDLESEX 


US MILITARY RESERVAT. 


60 


28.3 


26.8 


19.2 


18.4 


9.23 


2 WARE 


HAMPSHIRE 


QUABBIN SUMMIT 


92 


28.1 


26.0 


25.2 


21.7 


8.85 


2 WORCESTER 


WORCESTER 


2 WASHINGTON STREET 


85 


34.0 


27.4 


26.6 


26.0 


11.81 


2 WORCESTER 


WORCESTER 


CENTRAL STREET 


96 


36.2 


34.6 


32.5 


27.8 


12.05 


3 WORCESTER 


WORCESTER 


CENTRAL STREET 


70 


34.6 


31.8 


28.9 


27.2 


11.92 



? INDICATES THAT THE MEAN DOES NOT SATISFY SUMMARY CRITERIA (NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS FOR AT LEAST 1 QUARTER LESS 

THAN 75%) 

Standards (based on 3-year averages): 24-hours = 65 ug/m 3 Annual Arithmetic Mean = 15.0 ug/m 3 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (1 = NAMS. 2 = 
SLAMS, 3 = OTHER) V. OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAXIMUM VALUE 1ST, 2ND, 3RD, 4TH = I ST, 2ND, 3RD, AND 4TH HIGHEST 24-HOUR VALUES FOR THE YEAR YVTD 
ARITH MEAN = WEIGHTED ANNUAL ARITHMETIC MEAN (STANDARD = 15 ng/m>) ? = INDICATES THAT NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS WERE INSUFFICIENT TO CALCULATE MEAN 
THE DATA CAPTURE AT A SITE MUST EXCEED 75% FOR EACH QUARTER 



Boston (four sites) 

City Square (Charlestown) 
Harrison Ave (Roxbury) 
Kenmore Sq. 
North St. 




7^-^ 



64 



Lead (Pb) Summary 



Introduction 



As required by USEPA, lead monitoring was reinstituted in 1998 after being 
discontinued in July 1995. The concentrations monitored are very low. The use of 
unleaded gasoline has greatly diminished lead emissions, since the primary source 
for airborne lead is motor vehicles. Lead monitoring was reinstated at the Kenmore 
Square, Boston, location in 1998 in an effort to continue the tracking of long-term 
lead concentration trends. 



Lead health 
effects 



Exposure to lead may occur by inhalation or ingestion of food, water, soil or dust 

particles. 

Children, infants, and fetuses are more susceptible to the effects of lead exposure. 

Lead causes mental retardation, brain damage, and liver disease. It may be a factor 

in high blood pressure and damages the nervous system. 

The primary source for airborne lead used to be motor vehicles, but the use of 

unleaded gasoline has greatly reduced those emissions. Other sources are lead 

smelters and battery plants. 



The Lead 
standard 



The National Ambient Air Quality Standard is listed below. 



• Primary Standards - designed to protect public health against adverse health effects with a margin of safety. 

• Secondary Standards - designed to protect against damage to crops, vegetation, and buildings from air pollution. 



POLLUTANT | 


AVERAGING TIME | 


PRIMARY j 


SECONDARY jj 


Pb I Calendar Quarter Arithmetic j 1 .5 ug/m 3 1 Same as Primary Standard 

Mean ■ i 



ug/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter ppm = parts per million mg/m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter 



Continued on next page 



65 



Lead (Pb) Summary, continued 



2000 Pb data 
summary 



A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 



SITE ID 



P 

O M 

C T CITY 



UNITS: UG/CU METER 



COUNTY ADDRESS 



% -QUARTERLY ARITH MEANS MEANS MAX VALUES 
OBS 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH >1.5 1ST 2ND 



25-025-0002 



BOSTON SUFFOLK KENMORE SQ. 



91 



.01 



.02 .02 .02 







.09 



.08 



? INDICATES THAT THE MEAN DOES NOT SATISFY SUMMARY CRITERIA (NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS FOR AT LEAST 1 QUARTER 
LESS THAN 75%) 

Standard: 1 .5 Lig/m 3 (Calendar Quarter Arithmetic Mean) 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AJRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (2 = SLAMS, 3 = 
OTHER) % OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE QUARTERLY ARITH MEANS 1ST,2ND,3RD,4TH = THE MEANS FOR THE I ST.2ND3RD AND 4TH CALENDAR QUARTERS MEANS > 1.5 = 
THE NUMBER OF CALENDAR QUARTER MEANS GREATER THAN THE STANDARD (1 5 UG/M3) MAX VALUES 1ST. 2ND = THE 1ST & 2ND MAXIMUM 24 HOUR VALUES 




7^\ 



^ 



66 



Acid Deposition 



What is acid 
deposition? 



Acid deposition occurs when acidic substances fall to the earth's surface from the 
atmosphere. The emissions of sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ) and the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) 
react in the atmosphere with water and oxygen to form acidic compounds, such as 
sulfuric acid and nitric acid. These compounds are returned to the earth in 
precipitation (such as rain, snow or fog), or in dry form as gas and particles. 



Effects of acid 
deposition 



Acid deposition causes acidification of surface waters, which jeopardize the aquatic 
ecosystem by diminishing and in some cases eradicating fish species. It contributes 
to forest degradation and adversely affects soils, influencing the yields of some 
crops. The formation of acidic particles in the atmosphere leads to haze and 
visibility reduction. Acid deposition also is responsible for the corrosion and 
deterioration of materials and buildings through its effect on stone, metals and paints. 



Monitoring in 
Massachusetts 



One National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) acid rain site is located in 
Waltham and run by MADEP. There are two additional sites in Truro and Ware. 
The NADP is a cooperative effort that consists of a nationwide network of more than 
200 precipitation monitoring sites. The NADP has a web site at nadp.sws.uiuc.edu . 



Wet precipitation for each week is collected and tested for acidity and conductivity. 
It is then sent to a central lab in Illinois, where it is analyzed for compounds 
including sulfate (S0 4 ), nitrate (N0 3 ), and hydrogen (acidity as pH). 



Continued on next page 



67 



Acid Deposition, Continued 



Acid deposition Figure 37 shows the trend for the pH of precipitation, which is an indicator of 
trends acidity. The long-term trend shows the pH is increasing and is therefore less acidic 

This means the precipitation is less harmful to the environment. 

Distilled water that has equilibrated with carbon dioxide (C02) in the laboratory has 
a pH of 5.6. Monitoring conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration (NOAA) at remote sites around the world shows a pH in the 5.0 
range. Since pH is on a logarithmic scale, Massachusetts precipitation is 5 to 10 
times more acidic than unpolluted precipitation. 



4.80 



Precipitation pH Trend 1985 - 2000 
(data represents the average of the Truro, Walthamand Wire sites) 




Figure 37 



86 87 88 89 90 91 



92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 
Year 



Acid deposition 
trends, 



Figure 38 shows the long-term trends for nitrate (N0 3 ) and sulfate (S0 4 ) which 
result from the emissions of sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) into 
the atmosphere. These compounds are harmful to the quality of surface waters 
S0 4 increases acidity, and N0 3 increases acidity and can cause algae blooms 



Nitrate and Sulfate Deposition Trends 1985 - 2000 
(data represents the average of the Truro, Waltham and Ware sites) 




93 94 95 
Sulfate 



Figure 38 



68 



Industrial Network Summary 



Introduction 



The industrial ambient air quality network is comprised of monitoring stations 
operated by industries with facilities that may potentially emit large amounts of 
pollutants. An example would be a coal-burning power plant, which emits S0 2 . 

The monitoring stations in the industrial network are sited to measure the maximum 
values from the specific point source. When the pollutant (S0 2 ) value reaches 
certain trigger values, the power plant switches to lower sulfur-content fuel. 

The data from the industrial network is submitted to the Air Assessment Branch. It 
is submitted into the USEPA AIRS database after the quality assurance process has 
been completed. 



The Continuous The ambient monitoring network is different from, and in addition to, the in-stack 
Emission Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) equipment which is required at 

Monitoring certain facilities by a MADEP-issued permit or other state and federal regulations. 

System (CEMS) For example, the federal Acid Rain Program requires CEMS enabling calculation of 

S0 2 , NO x and C0 2 emissions from the nation's largest power generating facilities. 

The information on emissions collected by those monitors can be found on USEPA's 

web site (www.epa.gov/acidrain). 



Sulfur Dioxide 
(S0 2 ) summary 



There were six S0 2 sites during 2000 in the industrial network. Three of the sites 
achieved the requirement of 80% or greater data capture for the year. There were no 
known violations of the S0 2 air quality standards during the year in the reported 
data. However, two sites have not yet reported 2000 data. The Dewar St. site was 
not functional from July 17 th through November 1 st due to a transformer fire on the 
abutting property. The oil from the transformer leaked into the ground underneath 
the site trailer, and cleanup and repair of the site took the entire period. 



A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 





P 




UNITS: PPM 






















C^ 






REP 


% 


MAX 


24-HR 


MAX 


3-HR 


MAX 


1-HR 


ARIT 


SITE ID 


CT CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 


ORG 


OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


1ST 


2ND 


1ST 


2ND 


MEAN 


25-025-0019 


1 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


LONG ISLAND 


5 


95 


.023 


.019 


.042 


.041 


.065 


.062 


.004 


25-025-0020 


1 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


DEWAR STREET 


5 


68 


.035 


.035 


.055 


.049 


.063 


.055 


.006? 


25-025-0021 


2 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


340 BREMEN ST. 


5 


95 


.029 


.027 


.054 


.047 


.061 


.060 


.006 


25-025-0040 


1 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


531AE. FIRST ST 


5 


95 


.032 


.030 


.067 


.057 


.089 


.072 


.006 


25-017-1701 


1 4 STONEHAM 


MIDDLESEX 


HILL STREET 


25 


N/A 
















25-009-5004 


1 4 HAVERHILL 


ESSEX 


NETTLE SCHOOL 


2 


N/A 

















TO CONVERT UNITS FROM PPM TO mG/M 3 MULTIPLY PPM x 2620 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AJRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (4 = INDUSTRIAL) REP 
ORG = REPORTING ORGANIZATION %OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAX 24-HR, MAX 3-HR, MAX I-HR 1ST 2ND = FIRST AND SECOND HIGHEST VALUE FOR TIME PERIOD 
INDICATED OBS > .14 = NUMBER OF 24-HR AVG GREATER THAN 14 PPM (24-HR STANDARD) OBS > .SO = NUMBER OF 3-HR AVG GREATER THAN 50 PPM (3-HR STANDARD) ARIT 
MEAN = ARITHMETIC MEAN (STANDARD = 030 PPM) 



Continued on next page 



69 



Industrial Network Summary, continued 



Nitrogen 
Dioxide (N0 2 ) 
summary 



There was one N0 2 site during 2000 in the industrial network, operated by Sithe 
New England in Boston (East First St.). It met the requirement of 80% or greater 
data capture. There were no violations of the N0 2 air quality standard during the 
year. The annual arithmetic mean was 0.020 ppm, which is 40% of the standard. 



A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 





P UNITS: PPM 










O M % 


MAX 


1-HR 


ARIT 


SITE ID 


C T CITY COUNTY ADDRESS OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


MEAN 


25-025-0040 


1 4 BOSTON SUFFOLK 531 A EAST FIRST ST 94 


.095 


.076 


.020 



TO CONVERT UNITS FROM PPM TO uG/M 3 MULTIPLY PPM x 1886.8 
PRIMARY STANDARD: ANNUAL ARITHMETIC MEAN = 0.053 PPM 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (4 = INDUSTRIAL) 

%OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAX 1-HR 1ST 2ND = FIRST AND SECOND HIGHEST VALUE FOR TIME PERIOD INDICATED ARIT MEAN = ARITHMETIC MEAN (STANDARD = 053 

PPM) 



Total There were four TSP sites during 2000 in the industrial network, all operated by 

Suspended Sithe New England in the city of Boston. Three sites met the requirement of 80% or 

Particulates greater data capture. Dewar St. was down from July 17 th through November 1 st due 

(TSP) summary to a transformer fire in the area. 

TSP is not a criteria pollutant (PM 10 replaced it as the particulate standard in 1987), 
so there is no longer a standard for it. The highest 24-hour value was 253 ug/m3 at 
the East First St. site, which is 97% of the old standard (260 ug/m3). The highest 
annual geometric mean was 50 ug/m3 at the East First St. site, which is 63% of the 
old standard (75 ug/m3). 



A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 





P 

O /v 




UNITS: UG/CU METER 
(25C) 


% 


MAXIMUM 24-HR VALUES ARITH GEO 


GEO 




SITE ID 


C T CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 




OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


3RD 


4TH 


MEAN MEAN STD 




25-025-0019 


1 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


LONG ISLAND 




96 


79 


69 


51 


47 


29 28 


1.4 




25-025-0020 


1 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


DEWAR STREET 




70 


110 


76 


66 


66 


44? 41? 


1.4 




25-025-0021 


2 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


340 BREMEN ST 




100 


145 


135 


120 


106 


55 51 


1.5 




25-025-0040 


1 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


531 A EAST FIRST STREET 


100 


188 


76 


75 


75 


47 43 


1.4 




25-025-0040 


2 4 BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


531 A EAST FIRST STREET 


100 


187 


84 


82 


76 


47 44 


1.5 




ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT= MONITOR TYPE (4 = INDUSTRIAL) 
% OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAXIMUM VALUES 1ST,2ND,3RD,4TH = IST.2ND.3RD AND 4TH HIGHEST 24-HOUR VALUES FOR THE YEAR ARITH MEAN = ARITHMETIC 
MEAN GEO MEAN = GEOMETRIC MEAN GEO STD = GEOMETRIC STANDARD DEVIATION 



Continued on next page 



70 



Industrial Network Summary, continued 



Sulfate (S0 4 ) 
summary 



There were four SO4 sites during 2000 in the industrial network, all operated by 
Sithe New England in the city of Boston. Three met the requirement of 80% or 
greater data capture. 

There are no standards for S0 4 , since it is not a criteria pollutant. The highest 24- 
hour value, 3 1 Tg/m 3 , was measured at East First St. The highest annual arithmetic 
mean was 8.17 Tg/m 3 at Bremen St. 

A summary of the 2000 data is listed below. 





P 








UNITS: UG/CU METER (25C) 
















O 


M 








% 




-MAXIMUM VALUES- 


ARITH 


SITE ID 


C 


T 


CITY 


COUNTY 


ADDRESS 


OBS 


1ST 


2ND 


3RD 


4TH 


MEAN 


25-025-0019 


1 


4 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


LONG ISLAND 


96 


23.0 


13.0 


12.0 


12.0 


7.51 


25-025-0020 


1 


4 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


DEWAR STREET 


70 


16.0 


13.0 


12.0 


12.0 


7.91? 


25-025-0021 


2 


4 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


340 BREMEN STREET 


100 


19.0 


16.0 


15.0 


14.0 


8.80 


25-025-0040 


1 


4 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


531 A EAST FIRST STREET 


100 


19.0 


14.0 


13.0 


13.0 


8.39 


25-025-0040 


2 


4 


BOSTON 


SUFFOLK 


531 A EAST FIRST STREET 


100 


18.0 


14.0 


14.0 


12.0 


8.39 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

SITE ID = AIRS SITE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER POC = PARAMETER OCCURRENCE CODE (DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MONITORS AT A SITE) MT = MONITOR TYPE (4 = INDUSTRIAL) •/. 
OBS = DATA CAPTURE PERCENTAGE MAXIMUM VALUES 1ST,2ND,3RD,4TH = 1ST2ND3RD AND 4TH HIGHEST 24-HOUR VALUES FOR THE YEAR ARITH MEAN = ARITHMETIC MEAN 









71 



Quality Control and Quality Assurance 



Introduction 



To ensure that the ambient air quality data is of high quality, MADEP has developed 
standard operating procedures (SOPs). These procedures include quality control and 
quality assurance techniques that assess the quality and document the activities 
performed in collecting the data. 



Quality control 



Quality control (QC) is comprised of those activities performed by personnel who 
are directly involved in the generation of the data. Examples of personnel who 
perform QC functions are site operators and laboratory support personnel. QC 
activities include calibrations, data validation procedures, and performance checks of 
the ambient air monitors to assess the precision of the data. 



Data quality 



review 



The AAB data group reviews data. All precision and accuracy activities are checked 
as well as raw data, quality assurance checks, and documentation. Report software 
also is utilized for data validation. The data group edits the data as required and it is 
then transferred into the USEPA AIRS Database. 



Quality 
assurance 



Quality assurance (QA) is comprised of those activities performed by personnel who 
are not directly involved in the generation of the data and who may therefore make 
an unbiased assessment of the data quality. QA activities include performance audit 
checks of the ambient air monitors to assess the accuracy of the data. 



Precision and 
accuracy 



Precision is defined as a measure of the repeatability of a measurement system. 
Accuracy is defined as a measure of the closeness of an observed measurement value 
to the actual value. 



The QC and QA performance checks allow the precision and accuracy of ambient air 
monitors to be quantified. Testing the monitor's response to known inputs in order 
to assess the measurement error does this. The QC performance checks assess the 
precision, while the QA performance checks assess the accuracy. 

The requirements and techniques for performing precision and accuracy performance 
checks are established in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 58, 
Appendix A. 



How precision 
and accuracy is 
described 



Precision and accuracy are given in the context of upper and lower 95-percentile 
probability limits for each pollutant parameter. The meaning of the 95-percentile 
limits is that 95% of the data for a parameter is estimated to be precise or accurate to 
within the percentage range defined by the upper and lower limits. As an example, if 
the upper and lower 95-percentile-limits for a parameter based upon precision checks 
are calculated to be +4.3% and -7.4%, then 95% of the data is precise within the 
range of +4.3 through -7.4%. 



Continued on next page 



72 



Quality Control and Quality Assurance, continued 

2000 Precision As a goal, the 95-percentile probability limits for precision (all parameters) and PM ]0 and 
and accuracy TSP accuracy should be less than ±15%. The 95 percentile probability limits for accuracy 
summary for all other parameters should be less than ±20%. Three response levels are audited; low 

(LI) 6-16% of full scale, mid (L2) 30- 40%, and high (L3) 70-90%. A summary of the data 

is listed below. 


















PRECISION DATA 


ACCURACY DATA 


PRECISION AND ACCURACY DATA KEY 


#OF 


PRECIS 


PROB 


UM 


# 
AUDITS 


PROB 


LIM 


PROB 


LIM 


PROB 


LIM 


RG 


ST 


RO 


TYP 


CLASS 


POLL 


YEAR-Q 


ANLYZRS 


CHECK 


LO 


UP 


Ll-3 


LO-L1 


-UP 


LO-L2 


-UP 


LO-L3 


-UP 


01 


25 


001 


C 


A 


CO 


2000 


8 


190 


-07 


+07 


14 


-09 


+04 


-12 


+04 


-12 


+02 


CARBON MO 


NOXI 


3E 




2000-1 


8 


46 


-07 


+08 


3 


-10 


+08 


-15 


+09 


-13 


+07 














2000-2 


8 


50 


-07 


+03 


4 


-10 


+03 


-11 


+03 


-09 


+00 














2000-3 


8 


49 


-05 


+05 


3 


-05 


+00 


-10 


-01 


-09 


-03 














2000-4 


8 


45 


-04 


+07 


4 


-12 


+09 


-14 


+ 10 


-16 


+08 


01 


25 


001 


C 


A 


S02 


2000 


8 


190 


-11 


+06 


12 


-05 


+07 


-07 


+09 


-07 


+07 


SUL 


: UR DIOXI 


DE 






2000-1 


7 


45 


-09 


+04 


3 


-04 


-02 


-06 


-02 


-07 


-04 














2000-2 


8 


46 


-12 


+07 


3 


-07 


+08 


-07 


+09 


-04 


+03 














2000-3 


8 


49 


-07 


+00 


3 


-09 


+ 12 


-12 


+ 16 


-11 


+ 12 














2000-4 


8 


50 


-11 


+05 


3 


-01 


+04 


+00 


+06 


+00 


+05 


01 


25 


001 


C 


A 


N02 


2000 


13 


265 


-11 


+09 


17 


-13 


+04 


-15 


+05 


-13 


+06 


NITROG 


EN DIOXIDE 




2000-1 


5 


31 


-05 


+05 


4 


-20 


+ 10 


-13 


+03 


-10 


+04 














2000-2 


12 


77 


-11 


+08 


4 


-15 


+01 


-18 


+04 


-14 


+06 














2000-3 


13 


85 


-07 


+05 


4 


-05 


+01 


-08 


+07 


-07 


+08 














2000-4 


13 


72 


-12 


+ 11 


5 


-13 


+04 


-15 


+04 


-15 


+03 


01 


25 


001 


c 


A 


03 


2000 


15 


241 


-05 


+05 


30 


-05 


+ 10 


-05 


+10 


-05 


+10 


OZONE 










2000-1 


2 


14 


-05 


-01 



























2000-2 


15 


97 


-06 


+05 


13 


-04 


+ 12 


-05 


+ 11 


-05 


+ 12 














2000-3 


15 


104 


-04 


+05 


14 


-08 


+ 10 


-07 


+ 10 


-07 


+09 














2000-4 


4 


26 


-05 


+06 


3 


-02 


+06 


-19 


+ 16 


-18 


+ 16 
















PRECISION 


DATA 


ACCURACY DATA 


PRECISION Ah 


D ACCURACY DATA KEY 


#OF 


COLLC 


PROB 


LIM 


VAL COLL 


# 


PROB 


LIM 


PROB 


LIM 


RG 


ST 


RO 


TYP 


CLASS 


POLL 


YEAR-Q 


SMPLS 


SITES 


LO 


UP 


DATA PRS 


AUD 


LO-L1 


-UP 


LO-L2 


-UP 


01 


25 


001 


1 


F 


PM2.5 


2000 


332 


5 


-20 


+ 18 


328 




91 






-03 


+03 


PM2.5 LOCAL CON 


DITIONS 


2000-1 


77 


5 


-16 


+ 12 


77 




22 






-04 


+03 










200.0-2 


112 


5 


-20 


+ 17 


110 




24 






-04 


+04 














2000-3 


82 


4 


-24 


+22 


82 




27 






-03 


+03 












2000-4 


61 


3 


-17 


+21 


59 




18 






-05 


+04 


01 


25 


001 


1 


F 


PM10 


2000 


114 


3 


-10 


+12 


74 




18 






-04 


+10 


PM1 


TOTAL 0-1 OUM 




2000-1 


44 


3 


-09 


+ 16 


32 




4 






-02 


+ 10 














2000-2 


22 


2 


-05 


+08 


10 




4 






-04 


+11 














2000-3 


23 


2 


-10 


+07 


18 




'6 






-07 


+08 














2000-4 


25 


2 


-11 


+06 


14 




4 






-01 


+ 12 


01 


25 


001 


1 


F 


LEAD 


2000 

















2 






-03 


+12 


LEA 


D (TSP) 


2000-1 




































' 


2000-2 

















1 






+02 


+02 














2000-3 








































2000-4 

















1 






+07 


+07 


ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN TABLE 

RG = EPA REGION ST = STATE RO = REPORTING ORGANIZATION TYP = ANALYZER TYPE (CONTINUOUS OR INTERMITTENT) CLASS = ANALYTICAL (A), FLOW (F) YR = YEAR « 
OF ANLYZRS = NUMBER OF ANALYZERS PRECIS CHECKS = NUMBER OF PRECISION CHECKS PROB LIM LO/UP = LOWER AND UPPER 95% PROBABILITY LIMITS # AUDITS LI-3 = 
NUMBER OF AUDITS PROB LIM LO-L1-UP = LOWER AND UPPER 95% PROBABILITY LIMITS AT LOW RANGE PROB LIM LO-L2-UP = LOWER AND UPPER 95% PROBABILITY LIMITS 
AT MIDDLE RANGE PROB LIM LO-L3-UP = LOWER AND UPPER 95% PROBABILITY LIMITS AT HIGH RANGE # OF SMPLS =NUMBER OF SAMPLERS COLLC SITES = NUMBER OF 
COLLOCATED SITES VAL COLL DATA PRS = NUMBER OF VALID COLLOCATED SAMPLES (ABOVE THE LIMIT USED FOR PRECISION CALCULATION) # AUD = NUMBER OF AUDITS 



73 



Quality Control and Quality Assurance, Continued 



Precision data 
summary 



The figure below presents the precision summary for all parameters in 2000. The 
precisions are within acceptable limits except for PM 2 5 .The error range for PM 2 5 is 
attributed to machine malfunctions. However, the precision did improve greatly from 
last year +29% & -32% for 1 999 versus +18% & -20% for 2000. 



2000 Precision Summary 
Upper and lower 95% probability limits 



95% Probability limits 




Figure 39 



PM-10 



PM2.5 





CO 


so 2 


N0 2 


o 3 


PM 10 


PM 25 


Upper 


+7% 


+6% 


+9% 


+5% 


+12% 


+18% 


Lower 


-7% 


-11% 


-11% 


-5% 


-10% 


-20% 



CO accuracy 
summary 



The figure below presents the CO accuracy summary for 2000. The results were 
within acceptable limits. 

2000 CO Accuracy Summary 
Upper and lower 95% probability limits 



20 



10 



95% Probability limits 



-10 
-20 




Level 1(low) 



Acceptable accuracy is w ithin +/- 20% 




Level 2(mid) 



Level 3(high) 



Figure 40 





Level 1 (low) 


Level 2 (mid) 


Level 3 (high 


Upper 


+4% 


+4% 


+2% 


Lower 


-9% 


-12% 


-12% 



Continued on next page 



14 



Quality Control and Quality Assurance, Continued 



N0 2 accuracy The figure below presents the N0 2 accuracy summary for 2000. The results were 
summary within acceptable limits. 

2000 NQ2 Accuracy Summary 
Upper and lower 95% probability limits 

95% Probability limits 
20 



10 




-10 



-20 



Acceptable accuracy is w ithin +/- 20% | 
















CZ 




























( 
i 



Level 1 (low) 



Level 2 (mid) 



Level 3 (high) 



Figure 41 





Level 1 (low) 


Level 2 (mid) 


Level 3 (high) 


Upper 


+4% 


+5% 


+6% 


Lower 


-13% 


-15% 


-13% 



O3 accuracy The figure below presents the 3 accuracy summary for 2000. The results were 

summary within acceptable limits. 

2000 Q3 Accuracy Summary 
Upper and lower 95% probability limits 

95% probability limits 
20 



10 



-10 
-20 



Acceptable accuracy is w ithin +/- 20% 


















| 

















Figure 42 



Level 1 (low) 



Level 2 (mid) 



Level 3 (high) 





Level 1 (low) 


Level 2 (mid) 


Level 3 (high) 


Upper 


+10% 


+10% 


+ 10% 


Lower 


-5% 


-5% 


-5% 



Continued on next page 



75 



Quality Control and Quality Assurance, Continued 



S0 2 accuracy 
summary 



The figure below presents the S0 2 accuracy summary for 2000. The results were 
within acceptable limits. 



2000 SQ2 Accuracy Summary 
Upper and lower 95% probability limits 



95% Probability limits 
20 



10 



-10 







Acceptable accuracy is w ithin +/- 20% 


































■ ■ ■ 



Level 1 (low) 



Level 2 (mid) 



Level 3 (high) 



Figure 43 





Level 1 (low) 


Level 2 (mid) 


Level 3 (high) 


Upper 


+7% 


+9% 


+7% 


Lower 


-5% 


-7% 


-7% 



PM 10 , PM 2 . 5 & 
Lead accuracy 
summary 



The figure below presents the PM )0 , PM 2 5 and Lead accuracy summaries for 2000. 
The results were within acceptable limits. 



2000 PMm, PMis & Lead Accuracy Summary 
Upper and lower 95% probability limits 



95% Probability limits 




PM-10(Level2) 



PM2.5(Level2) 



LEA D( Level 2) 



Figure 44 





PM, (Level 2) 


PM 25 (Level 2) 


LEAD (Level 2) 


Upper 


+ 10% 


+3% 


+ 12% 


Lower 


-4% 


-3% 


-3% 



76 



Air Quality Levels By Region 



Introduction 



The Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) was developed by USEPA and provides a 
uniform way of presenting air pollution levels and rating the impact on public health 
for five major pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act. The pollutants are ozone 
(0 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (N0 2 ), and 
particulate matter - PM] (particulates less than 10 microns) and PM 2 5 (particulates 
less than 2.5 microns). This index was updated in 2001 to include more parameters 
and renamed The Air Quality Index (AQI). 



The PSI value for each parameter represents the annual mean of each day's PSI. 
Since N0 2 does not have a short-term daily federal standard, a PSI value was 
calculated using the N0 2 annual mean and comparing that to the federal standard. 



Massachusetts 
regions 



The PSI values are presented in this section by regions. The state has been divided 
by county into four regions. 

• Northeast region - Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk counties 

• Southeast region - Norfolk, Bristol, Plymouth, and Barnstable counties 

• Central region - Worcester county 

• West region - Franklin, Hampshire, Hampden, and Berkshire counties 



Massachusetts Counties 




NANTUCKET 



Continued on next page 



11 



Air Quality Levels By Region, Continued 



Understanding 
PSI levels 



The PSI level converts the measured concentration of a pollutant to a number on a 
scale of to 500. A PSI rating of 100 corresponds to the National Ambient Air 
Quality Standard (NAAQS) for that pollutant. 



The. categories of the PSI air quality levels are: 
Good: from to 50 
Moderate: from 50 to 100 
Unhealthful: from 100 to 200 
Very unhealthful: from 200 to 300 
Hazardous: above 300. 



PSI levels by 
region 



The figures below present the 2000 PSI levels for the pollutants monitored in each 
region. The PSI levels are the average for the year of all sites in the region. All of 
the PSI levels are below 50, in the Good category. 



Northeast Region Pollution Levels 





" 


Counties used: 
Essex, Suffolk 
and Mddlesex 


N02 


J~j29 


- 




03 




| 6/ 








S02 


no 






CO 


in 


- 




PM10 


131 


- 




PM2.5 


| 6/ 






C 


) 


25 5 
PSIl 



_evel 


75 1C 



Figure 45 



NQ2 



03 



SQ2 



FM2.5 



Southeast Region Pollution Levels 







Counties used: 
Barnstable, Bristol, 
Norfolk and FtymDuth 


10 




42 






8 




3D 





25 



50 
PSI Level 



75 



100 



Figure 46 



Continued on next page 



78. 



Air Quality Levels By Region, Continued 



PSI levels by 
region, 

Continued 



The figures below present the 2000 PSI levels for the pollutants monitored in each 
region. The PSI levels are the average for the year of all sites in the region. All of 
the PSI levels are below 50, in the Good category. 



Central Regjon Pollution Levels 

















County used: 
Vtorcester 


N02 






~1M 


- 




03 


I Jb 










S02 


19 






CO 


1 1U 


- 




FM10 




23 19 


- 






FM2.5 


>: : :, ■ ■'..... . .. | 3b 










C 


) 


25 


5 
PSIL 



evel 


75 1C 



Figure 47 







West Region Pollution Levels 



N02 




\22 












08 




■ 


|3 


SC2 


~^-|6 


"115 




CO 












FMIO 




T]20 




- 








RV2.5 


- - . ;|4/ 



25 



50 
PSI Level 



Counties used: 
Berkshire, l-terrpshire, 
Franklin and Harrpden 



Figure 48 



75 



100 



79 



Section IV 
PAMS/Air Toxics Monitoring 



PAMS Monitoring 



Introduction 



Non-criteria air pollutants are those pollutants that are monitored in the ambient air 
for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) do not exist. This 
category covers toxic air pollutants (toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi- 
volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), toxic elements, and other gases and particles), 
and organic ozone precursors and products (PAMS components). 

Since 1993, most efforts to monitor non-criteria pollutants have been associated with 
the PAMS (Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations) project. This project, 
which was mandated by the 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments, requires that 
state agencies measure a comprehensive list of pollutants and meteorological 
parameters related to the formation of ozone (O3) and other harmful photochemical 
oxidants during the summer months. 



Understanding 
ozone (0 3 ) 
generation 



Ozone is unique in that it is formed by reactions between other pollutants in presence 
of intense high-energy sunlight during the summer months. The complexity and 
subsequent time needed to complete these reactions results in the build up of ground 
level ozone concentrations far downwind from the original source of the precursors. 

Although this complex reaction system has stymied efforts to fully understand 
critical ozone formation parameters, it is well known that oxides of nitrogen and 
light sensitive (photo-reactive) volatile organic compounds are the major ozone 
precursors. The PAMS program represents the first consistent effort to measure 
ozone precursors, in addition to ozone itself, to gain a better understanding of 
chemical reactions producing ozone. 



What is 
monitored in 
the PAMS 
program 



Nitrogen oxides and ozone are two criteria pollutant categories monitored as part of 
the PAMS program. In addition, two categories of volatile organic compounds 
(VOCs), hydrocarbons (56 distinct compounds plus unidentified unknowns) and 
carbonyls (acetone, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) are measured. Total reactive 
oxides of nitrogen (NO y ) has received recent scrutiny as a factor in O3 generation, so 
it, too, is included in the data set. 



How are VOCs 
measured? 



The measurement of individual VOC pollutants in ambient air has required the 
introduction of sophisticated laboratory instruments and techniques, such as gas and 
liquid chromatography, into field locations. The high sensitivity of this equipment 
allows the measurement of very low concentrations of VOCs. 



Continued on next page 



80 



PAMS Monitoring, Continued 



How are VOCs 
measured? 

Continued 



Laboratory grade gas chromatographs (GCs) take and analyze hourly air samples at 
PAMS sites during the summer season months: June, July, and August. These 
measurements were taken at four of the seven PAMS sites currently operating in 
Massachusetts during the 2000 season. 



The PAMS 
monitoring 
network 



PAMS monitoring is required in Boston and Springfield because these areas coincide 
with southwesterly and northwesterly wind directions that are prevalent during high 
ground ozone events. PAMS monitoring stations are located upwind and downwind 
from these cities. 



USEPA regulations, issued subsequent to the passage of the Clean Air Act 
Amendments, require metropolitan areas to establish a certain number of PAMS sites 
based upon population. As a result, Springfield is required to have three PAMS sites 
and Boston is required to have five. The regional scale of ground-level ozone has 
led to a wide distribution of sites. One "Boston Area" site is in Maine (Acadia 
National Park); one "Providence Area" site is in Massachusetts (Truro - Cape Cod 
National Seashore); and one site is shared by Boston and Providence (Easton - 
Borderland State Park). 

Below are PAMS stations associated with or located in Massachusetts. 



Boston 


Springfield 


Providence 


Easton (Borderland State Park) 


Agawam 


Easton (Borderland State Park) 


Lvnn 


Chicopee 


Truro (Cape Cod NS) 


Newburv (Plum Island) 


Ware 




Boston (Long Island) 






Maine (Acadia National Park) 







Collection of PAMS data is very costly and the resulting data set is complex to 
analyze and utilize. Studies are underway to make the PAMS system and database 
more efficient, less costly, and user-friendly. 



The different 
types of PAMS 
monitoring 
schedules 



USEPA Clean Air Act Regulations dictate the intensity of hydrocarbon and carbonyl 
monitoring, depending on the site's proximity to the central city. Lynn (Boston) and 
Chicopee (Springfield) are designated to have the most intensive PAMS related 
sampling. The types of samples taken during the 2000 season are the following: 



Gas chromatographs took 1-hour hydrocarbon samples every day in June, July, 
and August at sites in Lynn and Newbury (eastern Massachusetts) and at sites in 
Chicopee and Ware (western Massachusetts). 

Eight 3-hour time weighted hydrocarbon canister samples are taken every third day 
during the summer at Agawam, Easton, and Truro locations. 



Continued on next page 



81 



PAMS Monitoring, Continued 



The different 
types of PAMS 
monitoring 
schedules, 

Continued 



• Eight 3-hour time weighted carbonyl samples are collected at sites in Lynn and 
Chicopee every third day throughout the summer. 

• All PAMS sites collect ozone, nitrogen oxides, and meteorological data 
continuously throughout the summer. 

A number of PAMS target pollutants, including benzene and formaldehyde, are of 
concern because of their toxic properties. In addition to the monitoring schedule 
described above the following is in effect: 

• Every sixth day, 24-hour time weighted samples (canisters and carbonyls) are 
taken throughout the year at the Lynn and Chicopee locations. The results from 
these samples contain data for some health relevant volatile organic compounds in 
addition to the PAMS target compounds. 

• Every sixth day, 24-hour hydrocarbon canister samples are collected throughout 
the year at Long Island in Boston Harbor. These samples serve double duty of 
toxics analysis for comparison with the other toxics sampling location at Dudley 
Square. 

Both hydrocarbon canister and carbonyl samples are at the Air Assessment Branch 
(AAB) headquarters in Lawrence. 



Characteristics 
of PAMS data 



Collection of PAMS data generates thousands of data points for many parameters. 
Air quality scientists are particularly interested in data collected during periods of 
high ozone episodes. Meteorology, precursor activities, and ozone production can be 
studied. 



Typically, ground-level ozone concentrations rise during the morning and afternoon 
and fall as the sun sets and cuts off the reaction energy source. This is dependent on 
the solar intensity and the transport of ozone produced upwind. Concentrations of 
ozone precursors, such as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons emitted from vehicles, 
rise at the morning rush hour but decline throughout the day as they are consumed in 
ozone-related chemical reactions. 



Analyzing the 
patterns of 
PAMS data 



Air quality scientists use PAMS data to look at upwind and downwind data 
concentrations. They thus can estimate how much of the ozone participating 
compounds are locally produced versus wind transported and how those proportions 
affect locally measured ambient ozone concentrations. 

Isoprene is a particularly interesting ozone reactive hydrocarbon because it is emitted 
primarily by trees during hot weather. When high temperatures occur, isoprene 
concentrations peak. These peaks dip as ozone rises because isoprene is consumed 
during ozone formation. Sampling areas that are heavily forested have high isoprene 
concentrations. 

Continued on next page 



82 



PAMS Monitoring, Continued 



A look at 
PAMS data on 
a high ozone 
day 



The spatial and time relationships between PAMS compounds are studied to explore 
their connection with ground-level ozone production. The following are graphs of 
four pollutants that were measured on a high ozone day in 1 998 at the three PAMS 
sites in the Springfield area. Agawam is the upwind site, Chicopee is the central city 
location (immediately downwind of Springfield), and Ware is the downwind location 
(where ozone values may be expected to be highest). 



Ozone, toluene, nitrogen dioxide, and isoprene are plotted on each graph. 

• Toluene is plotted as an example of a petroleum hydrocarbon. 

• Nitrogen dioxide is plotted as the primary reactive oxide of nitrogen. 

• Isoprene is plotted in contrast to toluene, as a biogenically (i.e. trees) emitted 
hydrocarbon. 

Chicopee data are shown below. Toluene and nitrogen dioxide are pollutants 
associated with vehicles and are expected to be higher in a more urban setting like 
Chicopee than in more rural settings. Toluene values peak during rush hours when 
traffic is highest. Notice that ozone peaks a few hours after the hydrocarbon peaks, 
after the chemicals have had time to react. 

Chicopee VOC, Q3 and NQ2 on a High Ozone Day 

July 16, 1998 




Figure 49 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 

Hours 



' Chicopee Ozone (ppm) 
' Chicopee Isoprene (ppb) 



' Chicopee Nitrogen Dioxide (ppm) 
' Chicopee Toluene (ppb) 



Continued on next page 



83 



PAMS Monitoring, continued 



A look at 
PAMS data on 
a high ozone 
day, Continued 



The next figure shows the same data from Ware. 

The structure of the ozone peak is more complex at this downwind site than the 
upwind location (Agawam) because locally produced ozone mixes with ozone 
transported into the region, which forms two offsetting components to the peak. 

The Ware station consistently records high isoprene levels because of its location at 
the Quabbin Reservation, which is heavily forested. Ware is a good example of the 
biogenics (isoprene) curve following the diurnal temperature pattern. 

Ware VOC, Q3 and NQ2 on a High Ozone Day 

July 16, 1998 



E 
a 
a 




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 

Hours 












Figure 50 



'Quabbin Ozone (ppm) 
•Quabbin Isoprene (ppb) 



■Quabbin Nitrogen Doxide (ppm) 
'Qjabbin Toluene (ppb) 



Continued on next page 



84 



PAMS Monitoring, Continued 



A look at 
PAMS data on 
a high ozone 
day, Continued 



Figure 51 shows that the peaks at Agawam follow the same pattern as at Chicopee 
and Ware. The ozone peaks occur a few hours after the peaks in the hydrocarbons, 
allowing for the reaction time of the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. 



Agawam VOC, Q3 and NQ2 on a High Ozone Day 

July 16, 1998 



.120 
.100- 






♦ 




-- 


ppm 


A " ^S. 


.040 




.020 




s^ <♦ 








" ♦ — 


"^ 







9 12 

Hours 



16.00 

14.00 

12.00 

10.00 

8.00 % 

6.00 

4.00 

2.00 

0.00 



15 



18 



21 



Figure 51 



■Agawam Ozone (ppm) 
■Agawam Isoprene (ppb) 



"Agawam Nitrogen Dioxide (ppm) 
■Agawam Toluene (ppb) 



PAMS Future 
Developments 



As can certainly be inferred from the prior text and data, PAMS is a complicated and 
resource-intensive program. As other high-priority monitoring initiatives have come 
forward to challenge PAMS for resources and attention, states across the country 
have been looking into options to refocus the program's objectives and streamline 
the network. In fact, states on the eastern seaboard (NESCAUM and MARAMA 
organizations) issued a contract for data analysis to Sonoma Technology, 
Incorporated to make recommendations pertaining to PAMS network modifications. 
In advance of this report, MADEP modified its network for the 2001 season 
dropping Agawam from measuring hydrocarbons and converting Ware from the 
hourly automated GC to the eight canisters every third day schedule. These changes 
were confirmed by the study, which was finalized after the 2001 season field 
deployment occurred. 



85 



Air Toxics Monitoring 



Introduction 



Toxic air pollutants usually refer to chemicals that are capable of causing long-term 
health effects and include volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, toxic 
elements, and toxic minerals (e.g., asbestos and silica). Over the last 15 years, the 
Air Assessment Branch has been involved with short-term, site-specific monitoring 
studies for toxic air pollutants, and has reviewed and commented on plans and results 
from such studies that have been conducted by private contractors for MADEP. 



Air toxics 

monitoring 

program 



Recently, nationwide discussions have been held to revive efforts to monitor toxic air 
pollutants at representative ambient locations on a routine schedule. Sixth day 24- 
hour canister sampling began in October 1999 at the new Long Island (Boston 
Harbor) and Roxbury sites using the EPA PM ]0 schedule. 



These weekly samples are shipped to the Rhode Island State Department of Health 
Laboratory for gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis according 
to USEPA Method TO- 15. This analysis determines concentrations of a number of 
target toxic volatile organic compounds in ambient air samples. 

Below is a table which shows a summary of results for 24-hour samples in 2000 of 
selected target VOCs for the two sites. As expected, the mean concentrations were 
higher for the target pollutants at the central city location (Harrison Ave.) than those 
at the background site on a Boston Harbor island (Long Island). 





BOSTON (Harrison Ave) 


BOSTON (Long Island) 


Compound 


Max Value 
ppb 


Mean 
ppb 


Max Value 
ppb 


Mean 
ppb 


1,3-butadiene 


0.64 


0.09 


0.20 


0.02 


1,1,1 -trichloroethane 


0.15 


0.05 


0.08 


0.05 


trichloroethylene 


0.07 


0.01 


0.06 


0.01 


tetrachloroethylene 


0.18 


0.04 


0.12 


0.02 


benzene 


1.81 


0.47 


0.69 


0.22 


toluene 


10.62 


1.30 


1.36 


0.40 


xylenes 


2.68 


0.79 


0.79 


0.22 


ethylbenzene 


0.57 


0.18 


0.18 


0.06 



Continued on next page 



86 



Air Toxics Monitoring, continued 



Air toxics 
results from 
PAMS 
monitoring 



As described in the above PAMS Section, MADEP collects 24-hour hydrocarbon 
and carbonyl samples every six days year round at the Chicopee and Lynn sites. 
From the hydrocarbon analyses, values for several health relevant compounds 
(benzene, toluene, and xylene) can be extracted from the PAMS results. Benzene is 
included on USEPA's urban air toxics list. Also on the list are formaldehyde and 
acetaldehyde which are target PAMS carbonyl compounds. 






o> 

E 

_3 

O 

> 

o > 

— ja 

5 §: 
i_ "■"" 

(1> 

Q. 

V> 

■c 

(0 
QL 



1.5 



Below is a chart summarizing concentrations of 24-hour health relevant PAMS target 
compounds for samples taken at the Lynn PAMS site from 1994 through 2000. The 
benzene concentration decreased, likely the result of the use of reformulated gas 
beginning in 1995. 



Lynn Toxics VOC Summary 1994 
24-hour samples 



2000 



□ Benzene 
■ Toluene 

□ Ethyl Benzene 

□ Xylenes 




dJJ JJJ JH An Ju 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 
Year 



1998 



1999 



2000 



AALs (ppbv) 

Benzene = .04 

Toluene = 5.3 

Ethyl Benzene = 

69.1 

Xylenes = 2.7 



Figure 52 



Allowable Ambient Limits (AALs) are health-based air toxics guidelines developed by MADEP based on potential 
known or suspected carcinogenic and toxic health properties of individual compounds. Safety factors are 
incorporated into the AALs to account for exposures from pathways other than air. AALs are reviewed and updated 
periodically to reflect current toxicity information. 



Continued on next page 



87 



Air Toxics Monitoring, continued 



Mercury 
sampling 



From July 1997 through June 1999, an ambient mercury (Hg) sampling program was 
conducted at the Ware site as part of the New England Regional Ecological 
Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) mercury study. This site was one of 
five participating locations in New England where 24-hour mercury vapor and 
particulate samples were taken every sixth day for two years. The program also 
included a two-year wet deposition component to determine mercury concentrations 
in rainwater in the New England Region. Samples from four sites were sent to the 
University of Michigan for analysis. The fifth site, Bridgton, ME, was operated by 
the NADP and is not included in the results below. 



A data and quality assurance report has been published for the first year of the study, 
7/97-6/98. Preliminary results are available from the second year, 7/98-6/99. Below 
are the precipitation concentration and deposition results from the four New England 
sites analyzed by University of Michigan. Concentration shows the concentration of 
Hg in daily event precipitation samples and deposition shows the deposition Hg in 
precipitation. 



July 1997 -June 1998 


Concentration 


Deposition 


Acadia, ME 


6.8 ng/L 


10.9ug/m2 


Underhill, VT 


8.9 ng/L 


12.1 ug/m2 


Ware, MA 


9.7 ng/L 


12.5 ug/m2 


Providence, RI 


9.7 ng/L 


14.5 ug/m2 




July 1998 -June 1999 


Concentration 


Deposition 


Acadia, ME 


8.7 ng/L 


10.2ug/m2 


Underhill, VT 


9.1 ng/L 


1 1 .3 ug/m2 


Ware, MA 


9.4 ng/L 


8.9 ug/m2 


Providence, RI 


9.9 ng/L 


9.6 ug/m2 



88 



Section V 
Emissions Inventory 
Emissions Inventories: 1990-1999 



Introduction 



The emissions trends are presented for four major pollutants of concern: volatile 
organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ), and carbon 
monoxide (CO). Emissions data are not available for particulates and lead. The 
emissions trends cover the period from 1990 to 1999. 



Reporting 

emission 

inventories 



Emissions inventories are required by USEPA every three years. The basic emission 
methodology involves multiplying an activity factor by an emission factor. MADEP 
uses a wide range of activity factors such as fuel types, employment, vehicle miles 
traveled, and population. Emissions factors and methodology are provided by 
USEPA. MADEP spatially adjusts the emissions to counties and seasonally adjusts 
them for the summer. 

Massachusetts is in non-attainment for the 3 and CO national air quality standards 
and therefore has a State Implementation Plan (SIP) that describes emissions and 
control measures. The 1990 SIP included a base-year emissions inventory for VOCs, 
NO x , and CO, from which air pollution control programs were developed. 

The emissions estimates for the years 1990, 1993, and 1996 emissions were 
submitted to USEPA as part of the SIP process. The 1999 VOC, NO x , CO, and S02 
emissions estimates presented here are preliminary and were derived from the 
incomplete 1999 Periodic Emissions Inventories (PEI). 



The State Acid 
Rain (STAR) 
program 



S0 2 emissions are tracked annually by MADEP as part of the requirements of the 
1985 State Acid Rain (STAR) program. The STAR program was implemented to 
control emissions that cause acid deposition, which is harmful to the environment. 
The STAR program is more stringent and establishes a lower S0 2 emissions cap than 
the federal Acid Rain Program. The 412,000 ton state cap is based upon the average 
annual S0 2 emissions during the four-year base period of 1979-1982. MADEP is 
required to implement additional control measures if the S0 2 cap is exceeded, which 
has not occurred since the inception of the STAR program. The preliminary S02 
estimate for 1999 is 148,000 tons, which is less than half the cap. 

Continued on next page 



89 



Emissions Inventories: 1990-1999, continued 



Point source 

emissions 

trends 



The point-source category of the emissions inventory comprises the large industrial 
facilities and power plants. This is the only category in which actual data is 
available for all ten years because of USEPA annual reporting requirements. Figures 
53 and 54 show that VOC, S0 2 , and NO x point-source emissions during the 1990- 
1999 period decreased substantially, while CO has increased slightly. 
The power plant, utility S0 2 and NO x emissions are presented in Figure 55 and 
decreased substantially for the period. Power plants comprise the major proportion 
of NO x and S0 2 point-source emissions. Year-to-year changes in emissions reflect 
the adoption of emission controls as well as the weather and economic conditions. 



Emissions of S02 and NOx from Point Sources 1990-1999 



300000 
|5 250000 
* 200000 - 
g_ 150000 
<2 100000 
H 50000 




1990 



Figure 53 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



1998 



1999 



S02 POINT 



NOx POINT 



VOC and CO Point Source Emissions 1990-1999 



20000 



g 15000 

>- 

fe 10000 

Q. 
0) 



5000 




1990 



Figure 54 



1991 1992 1993 1994 

— •—VOC POINT 



1995 1996 

-■—CO POINT 



1997 



1998 



1999 



300000 



| 200000 

Ql 

c 100000, 
o 



Emissions of S02 and NOx from Power Plants 1990-1999 




Figure 55 



1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 

— *— S02 UTILITY — •— NOx UTILITY 



Continued on next page 



90 



Emissions Inventories: 1990-1999, continued 



VOC, NO x , 
CO and SO : 
emissions 
sources 



VOC, NO x , CO, and S0 2 emissions are produced from the source categories 
described below: 

• Point: a stationary source of air pollution, primarily from smokestacks in 
manufacturing facilities and power plants. 

• Area: small point sources too numerous to measure individually, such as gas 
stations, dry cleaners, and consumer products. Taken in the aggregate they may 
release a substantial amount of emissions. 

• On-Road Mobile: a category of mobile sources that includes common on-road 
vehicles such as autos, trucks, motorcycles, and buses. 

• Off-Road Mobile: a category of mobile sources that comprises engines that are 
not usually operated on a road, such as construction equipment, boats, aircraft, 
locomotives, snowmobiles, and lawnmowers. 



VOC emissions 
trends 



Total VOC emissions were reduced by 24% during the period 1990-1999. Figure 56 
(below) shows the composite VOC emissions trends for the period. 

On-road mobile VOC emissions were reduced by 34% even though the vehicle miles 
traveled (VMT) increased 15% during the period. The on-road mobile reduction is 
attributed to the Federal Motor Vehicle Control Program, the California Low 
Emission Vehicle Program (adopted by Massachusetts in 1995), the Basic Inspection 
and Maintenance (I/M) Program, Stage II vapor recovery for gas stations, and 
reformulated (lower volatility) gasoline. 

The off-road mobile VOC emissions decreased by 9% from 1990-1999. 



400 



(0 



Q 300 



a> 



CO 

a> 



(A 



200 



c 100 



Composite VOC Emissions 1990-1999 




Figure 56 



1990 



1993 



1996 



1999 



□ VOC POINT BVOC AREA DVOC MOBILE FJVOC NON-RD 



Continued on next page 



91 



Emissions Inventories: 1990-1999, continued 



NO x emissions 
trends 



Total NO x emissions decreased by 6% during the period 1990-1999 Figure 57 
(below) shows the composite NO x emissions trends for the period. 

Point-source emissions, primarily power plants, were reduced by 44% for this 
period. Area on-road and off-road mobile emissions increased by 6% 8% and 16% 

ioo P nf Tooo ThGSe ", nCre f eS ^ attributabIe t0 the ] 5% increase in VM^ Also the 
had hi T ° n - ro i a T d n mob,le -. source controls targeted VOC emissions and therefore 
had little effect on NO. emissions. NO x controls for mobile sources have been put in 
place more recently, and their effect will be reflected as the vehicle fleet turns over 

Composite Nox Emissions 1990-1 999 



§ 500 




£ 400 








1 300 


... 


_ 










| 200 










O O 

o 
SUOI 


J 


1 






CL 



1990 
□ NOx POINT 



Figure 57 



1993 
I NOx AREA 



1996 
□ NOx MOBILE 



1999 
INOxNON-RD 



CO emissions 
trends 



Total CO emissions were reduced by 21% during the period 1990-1999 Figure 58 
(below) shows the composite CO emissions trends for the period. 

On-road mobile emissions decreased by 43% for this period. Because on-road 
vehicles contribute the greatest amount of CO emissions, the decrease in emissions 
onsets the 24 /o increase in point source emissions and 13% increase in off-road 
emissions. Again, these increases are due to controls targeting VOC and NO 
reduction. x 



Composite CO Emissions 1990-1999 




Figure 58 



Continued on next page 



92 



Emissions Inventories: 1990-1999, continued 

On-road mobile Figure 59 (below) shows the 1990-1999 trends for on-road mobile VOC and NO x 



source 

emissions 

trends 



emissions, together with daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT). 

The VOC on-road mobile emissions decreased by 34% despite an increase of 1 5% in 
DVMT. This is a reflection of the effective on-road mobile-source control programs 
that were instituted during the period. 

NO x mobile-source emissions increased by 8%, because the on-road mobile-source 
controls had been targeted toward VOC reduction. NO x controls for mobile sources 
have been put in place more recently, and their effect will be reflected as the vehicle 
fleet turns over. 

CO mobile-source emissions decreased by 43% for this period. 



On-Road Mobile Emissions & Daily Vehicle 
MilesTraveled 1990-1999 







































£j 800 
| 700 
5 600 






















































!.500 








.•■ • 










™ 


_ 












U 400 








-a 














<D 










| 300 

3 


















^ 200 














w 100 

c 

o 

i— n 


■— 








- B" 








•'■ 










i u J 






1990 


1993 
MOx MOB 






1996 

O MOBILE/3 -■ 


1999 






ivor, MORN I- I I 


ILE cz 


IC 


— DVMT 



Figure 59 






93 



Appendix A: Public Site Location Coordinates 



CITY 

SITE LOCATION 



ADAMS 

Mt. Greylock Summit 



AGAWAM 
152 WestfieldSt 



AMHERST 
N. Pleasant St. 



BOSTON 

Kenmore Square 

590 Commonwealth Ave. 



BOSTON 

Fire Headquarters 

Southampton St. 



BOSTON 

340 Bremen St. 

East Boston 



BOSTON 

Fire Station 

200 Columbus Ave 



BOSTON 
1 City Square 
Charlestown 



BOSTON 

Post Office Square 



BOSTON 

Long Island Hospital Road 



BOSTON 
1 129 Harrison Ave. 
Roxbury 



BOSTON 
1 74 North Street 
North End 



BROCKTON 
120 Commerci al St 

CHICOPEE 
Westover Air Force Base 



EASTON 
Borderland State Park 



FAIRHAVEN 
Wood School 
Scontuit Rd. 




LOCATION COORDINATES 
UTM (East) & (North) 

LATITUDE & LONGITUDE 



UTM(East)650 1 60 (North)472 1 890 
LAT +42:38:12 LONG -73:10:07 
UTM(East)692120 (North)4659040 
LAT +42:03:42 LONG -72:40:41 



UTM(East)703800 (North)4696975 
LAT +42:24:01 LONG -72:31:25 



UTM(East)327095 (North)4690373 
LAT +42:20:54 LONG -71:05:57 



UTM(East)329584 (North)4688213 
LAT +42:19:46 LONG -71:04:06 



UTM(East)333008 (North )4693 531 
LAT +42:22:41 LONG -71:01:42 



UTM(East)329406 (North)46903 1 6 
LAT +42:20:55 LONG -71:04:16 



UTM(East)330090 (North)4693015 
LAT +42:22:22 LONG -71:03:49 



UTM(East)330840 (North)4691500 
LAT +42:2 1:34 LONG -71:03:15 



UTM(East)337656 (North)4686725 
LAT +42:19:03 LONG -70:58:12 



UTM(East)328394 (North)4688242 
LAT +42:19:46 LONG -71:04:58 



UTM(East)330841 (North)469 1 9 1 7 
LAT +42:2 1:46 LONG -71:03:15 



UTM(East)333300 (North)4660379 
LAT +42:04:47 LONG -71:00:55 



UTM(East)701792 (North)4674012 
LAT +42: 11:39 LONG -72:33:22 



UTM(East)322200 (North)4658820 
LAT +42:03:47 LONG -71:08:56 



UTM(East)343300 (North)46 1 0800 
LAT +4 1 :38:07 LONG -70:52:53 






Continued on next page 



94 



Appendix A: Public Site Location Coordinates, Continued 



CITY 

SITE LOCATION 


AIRS CODE 


UTM 
ZONE 


LOCATION COORDINATES 
UTM (East) & (North) 

LATITUDE & LONGITUDE 




FALL RIVER 
Fire Headquarters 
165 Bedford St. 


25-003-3001 


19 


UTM(East)320961 (North)46 18523 
LAT +41:42:01 LONG -71:09:06 




FALL RIVER 
Fire Station 
Globe St. 


25-005-1004 


19 


UTM(East)3 1 9694 (North)46 1 6888 
LAT +4 1:4 1:07 LONG -71:09:59 




FITCHBURG 
Fitchburg State College 
67 Rindge St. 


25-027-2004 


19 


UTM(East)271 158 (North )47 19399 
LAT +42:35:42 LONG -71:47:21 




HAVERHILL 
Consentino School 
Washington St. 


25-009-5005 


19 


UTM(East)327700 (North)4736400 
LAT +42:45:46 LONG -71:06:21 




LAWRENCE 
Wall Experiment Station 
37 Shattuck St. 


25-009-6001 


19 


UTM(East)322599 (North)4729400 
LAT +42:41:55 LONG -71:09:57 




LAWRENCE 
Storrow Park 
High St. 


25-009-0005 


19 


UTM(East)324221 (North)4730569 
LAT +42:42:34 LONG -71:08:47 




LOWELL 
Old City Hall 
Merrimack St. 


25-017-0007 


19 


UTM(East)3 10489 (North )4 723 770 
LAT +42:38:42 LONG -71:18:42 




LOWELL 
High School 
50 French St. 


25-017-0008 


19 


UTM(East)3 10474 (North)4724048 
LAT +42:38:51 LONG -71:18:43 




LYNN 

Lynn Water Treatment Plant 
390 Parkland St. 


25-009-2006 


19 


UTM(East)337855 (North)4704157 
LAT +42:28:28 LONG -70:58:21 




NEW BEDFORD 
YMCA 
25 Water St. 


25-005-2004 


19 


UTM(East)339500 (North)46101 10 
LAT +41:37:43 LONG -70:55:36 




NEWBURY 
US Department of the 

Interior 
Sunset Boulevard 


25-009-4004 


19 


UTM(East)3 52040 (North)4738800 
LAT +42:47:22 LONG -70:48:33 




PITTSFIELD 
Silvio Conte Federal 
Building 
78 Center St. 


25-003-5001 


18 


UTM(East)643496 (North)4701 187 
LAT +42:27:06 LONG -73:15:18 




QUINCY 
Fire Station 
Hancock St. 


25-021-0007 


19 


UTM(East)332391 (North)4682065 
LAT +42:16:29 LONG -71:01:57 




SPRINGFIELD 
Howard School 
59 Howard Street 


25-013-0011 


18 


UTM(East)699454 (North)4663358 
LAT +42:05:56 LONG -72:35:17 




SPRINGFIELD 
Liberty St. 


25-013-0016 


18 


UTM(East)699140 (North)4664480 
LAT +42:06:32 LONG -72:35:29 





Continued on next page 



95 



Appendix A: Public Site Location Coordinates, Continued 



CITY 

SITE LOCATION 


AIRS CODE 


UTM 
ZONE 


LOCATION COORDINATES 

UTM (East) & (North) 

LATITUDE & LONGITUDE 


SPRINGFIELD 
1586 Columbus Ave. 


25-013-2007 


18 


UTM(East)699150 (North)4663534 
LAT +42:06:02 LONG -72:35:30 


STOW 

U.S. Military Reservation 


25-017-1102 


19 


UTM(East)295450 (North)4698475 
LAT +42:24:49 LONG -71:29:09 


TRURO 

Cape Cod National Park 
Fox Bottom Area 


25-001-0002 


19 


UTM(East)4 1 5 1 00 (North)46473 8 1 
LAT +41:58:33 LONG -70:01:29 


WALTHAM 

U. Mass Field Station 

Beaver St. 


25-017-4003 


19 


UTM(East)3 17750 (North)4694520 
LAT +42:23:01 LONG -71:12:50 


WARE 
Quabbin Summit 


25-015-4002 


18 


UTM(East)719712 (North)4686127 
LAT +42: 1 7:54 LONG -72:20:05 


WORCESTER 
Worcester Airport 


25-027-0015 


19 


UTM(East)262797 (North)4684016 
LAT +42: 11:27 LONG -71:52:34 


WORCESTER 
YWCA 
2 Washington St. 


25-027-0016 


19 


UTM(East)269108 (North)4682 1 63 
LAT +42:15:33 LONG -71:47:57 


WORCESTER 

Fire Station 
Central St. 


25-027-0020 


19 


UTM(East)269152 (North)4683021 
LAT +42: 1 6:02 LONG -7 1 :47:56 


WORCESTER 

Grafton and Franklin Sts. 


25-027-0022 


19 


UTM(East)269599 (North)4682294 
LAT +42:15:39 LONG -71:47:36 



96 



Appendix B: Industrial Site Location Coordinates 



REPORTING ORGANIZATION 

CITY 

SITE LOCATION 


AIRS CODE 


UTM 
ZONE 


LOCATION COORDINATES 

UTM (East) & (North) 

LATITUDE & LONGITUDE 


ATLANTIC GELATIN . 
Stoneham (Hill St.) 
Hill Street 


25-017-1701 


19 


UTM(East)326462 (North)4704385 
LAT +42:28:28 LONG -7 1 :06:40 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 

Boston 

Long Island 


25-025-0019 


19 


UTM(East)337595 (North)4686595 
LAT +42:19:00 LONG -70:58:15 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 

Dorchester 

Dewar Street 


25-025-0020 


19 


UTM(East)330548 (North)4685952 
LAT +42:18:34 LONG -71:03:22 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 
East Boston 
Bremen Street 


25-025-0021 


19 


UTM(East)333008 (North)4693531 
LAT +42:22:4 1 LONG -71:01 :42 


SITHE NEW ENGLAND 
South Boston 
East First Street 


25-025-0040 


19 


UTM(East)331871 (North)4690009 
LAT +42:20:46 LONG -71 :02:28 


HAVERHILL PAPERBOARD 

Haverhill 

Nettle School 


25-009-5004 


19 


UTM(East)331385 (North)4737365 
LAT +42:46:20 LONG -7 1 :03 :40 



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